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chapter 5 turbulent diffusion flames - FedOA

chapter 5 turbulent diffusion flames - FedOA

ε Soot emissivity

ε Soot emissivity TR-LII Time Resolved-Laser Induced Incandescence LIE Laser Induced Emission PLIF Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence CCD Charge-Coupled Device camera SF Fluorescence signal B Einstein absorption coefficient divided by the speed of light IL Laser spectral power density per unit area, divided by the laser bandwidth Г Linewidth integral reflecting the overlap between laser and absorption line bandwidths τL Laser pulse length N (In page 45) The number of molecules in the ground electronic state ƒB Boltzmann fraction, the portion of those molecules in the particular electronicvibrational-rotational levels being excited by the laser Ф Fluorescent quantum efficiency Ffl Fraction of fluorescence collected within the detector bandwidth. Ω Solid angle є (In page 45) transmission efficiency η Photoelectron efficiencies Kext Extinction coefficient fV Particles volume fraction Spp Scattered light ΔV Scattering volume ηopt Efficiency factor of the optical and electronic components comprising the detection system Kpp Energy scattered per unit time and per unit volume into a unit solid angle direction θ τλ Attenuation factor of the scattering when it travels between the scattering volume and the detector Cpp Scattering cross section d63 Average diameter of the particles Zp Particle electrical mobility CPC Condensation Particle Counter FWHM Full Width at Half Maximum 6

INTRODUCTION In the last thirty years a great attention has been devoted to the understanding of the formation of by-products from combustion systems as result of the crescent world-wide interest to the reduction of pollutions and in parallel to the need of a more efficient utilization of fossil fuels. Many research groups, therefore, have intensified their efforts in the direction of a better understanding of the kinetic mechanisms of formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot particles, analyzing the physical variables influencing such combustion by- products and developing techniques and experimental procedures able to detect and characterize chemically and physically these species. Soot formation in combustion is a very complex problem that involves chemical and physical aspects, thousands of chemical reactions with hundreds of chemical species and various unsolved experimental problems. On the other hand many progresses have been made in these years toward the understanding of the formation of the first aromatic ring (benzene), the growth to form heavy PAH, the inception of the first particle nuclei and finally to their growth and coagulation forming mature soot particles. Moreover in the last years another class of particles has been found in combustion, both in sooting and non-sooting conditions: Nanoparticles of Organic Carbon (NOC) which have typical dimension of 2 – 3 nanometers and intermediate properties between PAH molecules and soot particles. In order to answer to the question about the relative importance of these particles class as soot precursors or as pollutions emitted from combustion processes many efforts have been done but the problem is not completely solved yet due to the wide range of variables involved. It is objective of many ongoing researches. 7

DNS of Turbulent Nonpremixed Ethylene Flames
Heat release rate measurement in turbulent flames