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Synthèse de haut-niveau de contrôleurs ultra-faible consommation ...

Synthèse de haut-niveau de contrôleurs ultra-faible consommation ...

tel-00553143, version 1

tel-00553143, version 1 - 6 Jan 2011 140 Experimental setup and results

tel-00553143, version 1 - 6 Jan 2011 Chapter 7 Conclusion and future perspectives WSN is a fast evolving technology with a number of potential applications in various domains of human-life. Structural-health and environmental monitoring, medicine, military surveillance, smart environments and robotic explorations can be some examples of these domains. Recent advancements in mechanics, wireless communication, and digital electronics have enabled us to develop low-cost, low-power and multi-functional sensor nodes that are small in size and communicate efficiently over short distances. Systems of 1000s or even 10,000s of such nodes are anticipated. WSN nodes are low-power embedded devices consisting of processing subsystem (an MCU connected to a RAM and/or flash memory), wireless communication subsystem (RF transceiver), power supply subsystem (power source and DC-DC converter) and sensory subsystem (sensor/actuator). Since WSN nodes must be small in size due to limited production cost, it is not possible to provide them with large power sources. In most cases they must rely on non-replenishing (e.g. batteries) or self-sufficient (e.g. solar cells) sources of energy. Hence, ultra low-power becomes the most critical design metric for a WSN node. It is also supported by the fact that WSN nodes may have to work unattended for long durations due to a large number of deployed nodes or a difficult access to them after deployment. If we analyze the power consumption profile of a generic WSN node, among all of its subsystems, communication and computation subsystems consume bulk of the node’s available power-budget. As a result, in this work, we targeted the power optimization of the computational subsystem of a WSN node. As far as their design is concerned, WSN node computational and control subsystems have until now been based on low-power MCUs such as the MSP430 from Texas Instruments, the ARM Cortex-M0 by ARM and the ATmega128L from Atmel Corporation. These programmable processors provide a reasonable processing power with low power consumption at a very affordable cost. Most of such MCU-packages also offer a limited amount of RAM (from a few hundred Bytes to a few kilo-Bytes) and non-volatile flash memory. 141

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