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Synthèse de haut-niveau de contrôleurs ultra-faible consommation ...

Synthèse de haut-niveau de contrôleurs ultra-faible consommation ...

tel-00553143, version 1

tel-00553143, version 1 - 6 Jan 2011 18 Résumé étendu

tel-00553143, version 1 - 6 Jan 2011 Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a fast evolving technology having a number of potential applications in various domains of daily-life, such as structural-health and environmental monitoring, medicine, military surveillance, robotic explorations etc. Advancements in Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) technology, wireless communications, and digital electronics have facilitated the development of low-cost, lowpower, multi-functional sensor nodes that are small in size and communicate efficiently over short distances. Thus the emerging field of WSN combines sensing, computation, and communication into a single tiny device (WSN node). WSN Systems of 1000s or even 10,000s of such nodes are anticipated that can revolutionize the way we live and work. The core design challenge in WSN is coping with the harsh resource constraints placed on the individual node devices. Embedded processors controlling the WSN nodes have only kilo-Bytes of memory and they must implement complex networking protocols. Many constraints evolve from the fact that these devices will be produced in a large number and must be small and inexpensive. As Moore’s law still remains applicable, we get nearly double the number of transistors in same surface area with newer process technology. This results in two scenarios (i) more functionalities can be added to a device for the same given area or (ii) size of the device gets smaller for the same given functionalities. This size reduction is also helpful for the devices to be produced as inexpensively as possible. The most difficult resource constraint to meet is power consumption. As physical size decreases, so does energy capacity of a WSN node. Underlying energy constraints end up creating computational and storage limitations that lead to a new set of architectural issues. Many devices, such as cell phones and pagers, reduce their power consumption through the use of specialized communication hardware in Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) that provide low-power implementations of the necessary communication protocols. To date, the strength of WSN systems is supposed to be their flexibility and uni- 19

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