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Synthèse de haut-niveau de contrôleurs ultra-faible consommation ...

Synthèse de haut-niveau de contrôleurs ultra-faible consommation ...

tel-00553143, version 1

tel-00553143, version 1 - 6 Jan 2011 32 Introduction

tel-00553143, version 1 - 6 Jan 2011 Chapter 2 WSN node architectures and low-power microcontrollers 2.1 WSN basics WSN systems are a merger of wireless networks and sensors but have different features and design challenges from both of them and provide possible significant improvements over both of them. For instance, traditional sensors are generally deployed in two ways [65]: � Sensors are placed far from the region of interest. In this approach, large sensors with complex measuring techniques and algorithms are required that must be capable of distinguishing the data readings from the environmental noise. � Several sensors are deployed within the area of interest but they only perform the sensing. Hence, the position and communication topologies for such sensors are carefully designed. They transmit periodically sensed readings that are combined and processed at central nodes. In contrast, a WSN is composed of a large number of sensor nodes that are deployed either inside the region of interest or very close to it. The positioning topology of the nodes does not need to be pre-designed. This makes the deployment simpler and helps in certain applications such as random deployment during disaster relief operations. On the other hand, it means that sensor nodes must be equipped with self-organization and localization functions. Moreover, sensor nodes contain on-board processing units and they do not just perform simple sense and forward operation but use their processing capabilities to perform in-network data processing and fusion. As far as the comparison between traditional wireless networks and WSN is concerned, we highlight the distinguishing features and design challenges for WSN below (more details can be found in the article by Holger et al. [70]): � Multi-hop communication: While in traditional wireless networks both singlehop and multi-hop communications are feasible depending upon the application 33

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