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Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Performance of exclosure

Performance of exclosure in restoring soil fertility 7.2 Material and methods 7.2.1 Study area The study was conducted in the Gubalafto district (Wereda) of the North Wello zone, Amhara National Regional State. The district is located between 11°35’ and 12°00’ north latitude and 39°14’ and 39°48’ east longitude (Figure 7.1). It covers 990km² and altitudes vary between 1300 and 3500 m a.s.l. The geology of the area is dominated by Cenozoic volcanic rocks, mainly Ashangi and Aiba basalts (Tefera et al. 1996). Figure 7.1 Location of study area: (a) Ethiopia in Africa, (b) Wello in Ethiopia, (c) Gubalafto district in Wello, and (d) Sample sites in Gubalafto district Like most parts of Wello, Gubalafto district is characterized by rugged topography where different landscapes are used for different purposes. Valley floors, plateau and terraces are used for cultivation and settlements, while steep terrains are used for grazing and exclosure, and some areas are waste lands. Gubalafto district is situated within the watershed boundaries of the Abay, Awash, Tekeze and Golina rivers. According to the FAO classification system, the dominant soil types of the area are 102

Performance of exclosure in restoring soil fertility Cambisols and Leptosols (FAO 1984). The mean annual temperature and rainfall range from 18°C to 22°C and 680 to 1050 mm, respectively. About 50% of the annual rainfall falls in July and August. May and June are the hottest months and December is the coldest month. Due to the wide climatic and elevation range, Gubalafto district has diversified agro-ecological zone including Kolla (warm, semi-arid, lowlands, 130 to 1500 m a.s.l.), Weyna-Dega (mild, sub-humid highlands, 1500 to 2300 m a.s.l.), Dega (cool, humid highlands, 2300 to 3200 m a.s.l.) and Wurch (cold, humid highlands, over 3200 m a.s.l) (NMSA, 1996; Hurni, 1998). The warm (Kolla), mild (Weyna-Dega), cool (Dega) and cold (Wurch) agro-ecological zones cover 5.5%, 40.2%, 32.1% and 22.2% of the district, respectively (Figure 7.2). Figure 7.2 Agro-ecological zones of Gubalafto district In this study, the local agro-ecological zones are translated as given before the bracket. The wider agro-ecological zones of the area favors a broad range of crops such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), maize (Zea mays), teff (Eragrostis tef), barley (Hordeum spp), wheat (Triticum spp), field pea (Pisum sativum) and horse bean (Vicia faba). A wide range of tree species are found in the district, which have different uses 103

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