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Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Implications of soil and

Implications of soil and water conservation measures for land rehabilitation- a synthesis grassland/woody-grassland increased by 14.6%, which is due to the recent large-scale expansion of exclosures (Chapter 4). It was also observed that density and coverage of forests increased in the areas where the interventions were started earlier. In contrast, the area covered by degraded-woody vegetation decreased by 13%. This shows that degraded lands are improving as a result of the exclosures (Chapter 4). The LULC change from converted marginal lands to cultivation and grazing was driven by population pressure and lack of awareness. Although the population of the area continues to increase, the vegetation cover on the marginal land is improving. The change can be mainly associated with policy interventions that initiated enclosure of degraded lands by local actors, and people also have become aware of the benefits of the practice. They have witnessed that, after exclosure, productivity of the land improved and the land could be used as a source of hay. Moreover, flood hazards and farmland encroachment due to aggressive gullies and slumping river banks, and deposition of stony and gravely sediment from the hillsides on productive farmlands has been considerably reduced (Chapter 4). Government policy has also played a significant role in initiating and enforcing the SWC interventions, e.g., the 1980 wild life and forest conservation and the 2005 rural land administration and use declarations. Active involvement of the government and NGO´s in SWC intervention, capacity building, research and incentives stimulated participation and raised people´s awareness level. The recent government policy partly solved the land ownership problem, where farmers are entitled to use the land, transfer it to family members and rent it for a fixed time period (Anonymous 2005; 2006). The policy also enforces proper land use. People living in areas where exclosures were established earlier recognized the positive impact of the intervention. In this regard, the NGO´s involvement also enhanced the adoption through incentives, e.g., payment in the form of food-for-work, farm tool provision, and capacity building such as workshops, short-term training and experience-sharing visits (Tekle 1999). Consequently, it is possible to conclude that the various policies in place so far and active involvement of the government and NGO´s in SWC play an important role in LULC change. 128

Implications of soil and water conservation measures for land rehabilitation- a synthesis 8.7 NDVI spatio-temporal variation as indicator of degradation/restoration In this study, NDVI data are used to fill the analysis gap in the LULC assessment. The NDVI data analysis helped to identify degradation hotspots, which were not addressed by the LULC analysis. Moreover, the NDVI analysis helped to verify the area showing vegetation improvement. NDVI provides the opportunity to perform empirical manipulations through modeling in a given spatio-temporal resolution. The analysis considered all data sets that evaluated every pixel across time. The results indicate that the study area broadly experiences vegetation improvement, degradation or no change, which was not very clear in the LULC analysis (Chapter 4). The northeast, west and central northwest parts were identified as areas of vegetation degradation, whereas the central, east and southeast parts showed restoration or very slight change. The restoration and degradation correlated neither with population density nor with topography. For example, Bugna, Kelela and Sayint districts are among the less populated areas, nevertheless they showed high vegetation degradation. On the other hand, although the population density of Guba-Lafto, Legambo and Tehuledere districts were higher, they showed considerable vegetation restoration. The latter districts have better accessibility than the former. Ambasel, Legambo and Gidan districts have highly rugged topography nonetheless, they also showed better restoration. The areas showing restoration are closer to all-weather roads and are adjacent to each other. Thus, access could contribute either to extension of the intervention, or actors used the advantage of accessibility to work in the area. The geographical continuity of rehabilitated areas could also indicate the significance of extension diffusion. The remotest areas showed vegetation degradation. Vlek et al., (2008) also reported higher degradation in areas under less population pressure and surmised that this was due to encroachment on marginal lands with limited carrying capacity. Therefore, location helped government policy implementation and extension work regardless of population density and geographic conditions. It can be concluded that development-actor commitment is crucial in replicating the conservation outcome of the accessible areas. Generally, the NDVI analysis provided better facilities to represent spatio-temporal vegetation dynamics and degradation/restoration patterns than the LULC analysis. 129

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