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5 years ago

Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Overall summary and

Overall summary and conclusions i. Although the regional state declared same policy measures concerning SWC and land management, the LULC and NDVI changes vary across districts. The vegetation improvement in some areas could be due to higher community awareness/experience and better local stakeholder commitments as well as NGO involvement. Discussions with community and agriculture offices indicated that prior SWC experience and NGO interventions enhanced the practices. However, the current study did not sufficiently address this aspect. Thus, further studies on the adoption of the practices and the factors that influence adoption are recommended. ii. With increase of exclosure age, there is a gradual replacement of palatable species, as these are mainly higher-layer vegetation. This could result in livestock feed shortages, which would lead to further dependency on crop residues and to degradation of the limited grasslands and open areas. Hence, further research and improvement of livestock feed from exclosures is vital to assure sustainability, particularly studies on appropriate forage species that could perform well on degraded lands to replace the non-palatable species, and the design of optimal management strategies that maximize livestock feed and other uses from exclosures. This could improve the livelihoods of the rural households, who entirely depend on agriculture. iii. During the field study, it was observed that most exclosures have neither management nor utilization plans. They should be planned with defined purposes such as soil conservation (reduced soil erosion, flood and landslide control), forage production, biodiversity conservation, apiculture and multipurpose (involving variety of uses). Planning also needs to include detailed management on how and when each activity is to take place rather than just taking corrective action. Therefore, we recommend that exclosures should be planned considering both the conservation and long- and short-term benefits of the community. iv. The analysis of topsoil fertility did not show significant differences within a terrace; however, crop yield showed significant differences. The crops on lowterrace position showed higher yields and remained green for a longer time than those on the other positions. This could be related to the soil accumulation gradient, which caused a depth gradient. The gradient could have been established in the early stages of terrace development. Therefore, the yield gradient within a terrace could 138

Overall summary and conclusions be attributed to the soil depth, which results in differences in the soil-water and nutrient storage capacity. However, the current study did not investigate this aspect in detail. Thus, further studies on the volumetric soil-moisture and nutrient gradients within a terrace are recommended. v. Studying the effects of terracing on crops sensitive to water-logging such as wheat could be important to minimize the negative effect thereby maximize the benefit of terracing. The findings could provide information on the impact of terracing under various soil types, crop types and terrain positions, and identify appropriate crops for different combinations of soil types and landscape positions. vi. Terracing did not result in significant yield increases. The analysis showed that on average 6% of the total cultivable land is occupied by terraces, which indicates that this land is not available for crop production. In order to compensate the resulting yield loss, use of production-boosting technologies is indispensable. Hence, increased use of chemical and organic fertilizers (manure, compost, green manure) together with terracing is recommended. It is also important to mention that grass on the terraces provides livestock feed. In the mixed-crop-livestock farming systems, livestock production is important for the livelihoods of the rural households. Therefore, part of the farmland lost through terrace construction could be compensated by livestock feed production. In order to understand the impact of terracing on soil fertility and crop production, we recommend further research that considers controlled management practices and input utilization and involves intensive site-specific samplings. 139

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