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Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Literature review Sinkam

Literature review Sinkam 1995). The encroachment on less resilient land could cause resource decline within a short period of time (de Sherbinin et al. 2007). He also argued that as the population increases and agricultural land becomes limited, farmers reduce or abandon fallowing. As a result, the land has no time to restore itself through natural processes. Thus, land potential declines with time and can lead to an ecological catastrophe (Turner and Shajaat Ali 1996). Malthus (1798) suggested population check as a remedy to balance the polarity between population growth and agricultural production decline, otherwise natural checks like famines could occur. Boserup (1965) considered population growth as a positive factor with respect to agricultural production rather than being a threat. The theory argues that population increase could result in efficient labor division and that the additional labor and improved technology have the potential to produce sufficient food for the growing population (de Sherbinin et al. 2007). She pointed out that agricultural intensification, which involves more labor and capital input, could be less harmful as agriculture takes place on suitable land rather than by expanding onto marginal lands. The additional labor gained could also positively contribute to land management through land development practices such as conservation and irrigation. In this case, population increase provides auxiliary labor for conservation activities. The world population is expected to rise to 9.2 billion in 2050, and growth will be highest in developing countries (UN 2007). The declining farmland holdings and decrease in surplus agricultural production with population increase could erode the food security system through reducing the food reserves for shortfall years (de Sherbinin et al. 2007). The recurrent droughts have worsened the food security situation. In African countries, while the population is increasing (UN 2007), agricultural production has not kept pace (Cuffaro 1997; Nana-Sinkam 1995; Watson and Currey 2009; Bingxin et al. 2010). For example, the agricultural production and population of Ethiopia has to grow by 3.6% annually in order to fulfill the food demand in line with the population growth rate (Sonneveld and Keyzer 2003). This indicates the need for intensification or extensification to narrow the gap. The following framework illustrates the implication of population growth on the limited resources in respect to the two theories (Figure 2.1). 6

Literature review Figure 2.1 Theoretical framework of population growth, agricultural production and land degradation 7

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