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Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Study area and general

Study area and general methodology 3 STUDY AREA AND GENERAL METHODOLOGY 3.1 Study area 3.1.1 Location Ethiopia is located on the horn of Africa between 3° and 15° N latitude and 36° and 48°E longitude (Figure 3.1) covering about 1.13 million km 2 . The country is divided into nine national regional states and two city administrations. The national regional states are Amhara, Afar, Benishangul-Gumz, Gambela, Harari, Oromia, Somali, Southern Nation Nationalities and People´s and Tigray. The city administrations are Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. The regional states are further subdivided into zones, and the zones are again subdivided into Weredas (districts). The administrative structure below the Wereda is the Kebele. In most rural areas in Wello, a Kebele administers about 1000 households. Figure 3.1 Location of study area: (a) Ethiopia in Africa, (b) National Regional States of Ethiopia, (c) Wello in Amhara region, and (d) North and South Wello zones 22

Study area and general methodology This study was conducted in the North and South Wello zones in the Amhara National Regional State. The zones are located in the eastern part of the region. The capitals of the South and North Wello zones are Desse and Weldiya, respectively. Desse and Weldiya are about 410 km and 520 km north of the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa, respectively. The two zones are located between 10°12’ to 12°22’ N latitude and 38°30’ to 40°14’ E longitude and cover about 30,000 km 2 . 3.1.2 Bio-physical characteristics Climate According to the local system, the country is classified into 5 agro-ecological zones: Wurch, Dega, Weyna-Dega, Kolla and Berha (NMSA 1996; Hurni 1998). In the study area, the Kolla, Weyna-Dega, Dega and Wurch zones cover 8.5%, 44.8%, 38.5% and 8.2% of the area, respectively (Figure 3.2). Based on Koppen´s classification, the Wello area is classified in three climatic regions: cool highland climate, tropical climate with dry summer, and tropical climate with distinct dry winter. Wello also has three distinct seasons namely Bega, Belg and Kiremt. Bega is a dry season from October to January (NMSA 1996). Belg is the small rainy season that occurs between mid February and mid May, while Kiremt is the main rainy season that extends from mid June to mid September (NMSA 1996). The mean annual temperature and mean annual rainfall ranges from 14°C to 20°C and from 680 mm to 1200 mm, respectively (Gonfa 1996). Based on the moisture index, the climate of Wello is classified as dry with arid to dry sub-humid conditions. According to the climatic characteristics, the region is further subdivided into an eastern and western part. Eastern Wello has a relatively dry climate with a moisture index of minus 60 to 0, and most areas receive sufficient moisture during the rainy seasons with some surplus water. In contrast, western Wello has a moderate to large amount of water surplus in the rainy seasons, which results in high run-off, soil erosion and water-logging depending on the soil type and topography (Gonfa 1996). 23

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