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Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Study area and general

Study area and general methodology (Jahnke 1982). Thus, the recommended density for the study area is less than that of humid tropics, as it belongs to dry tropics. The high livestock density has led to over grazing. Livestock production is still traditional and productivity is low. Animal health, feed shortage and low productivity of the breeds are key problems of the sector, which directly or indirectly contribute to the resources degradation. However, the diversified livestock has helped farmers to withstand livestock loss due to health and other problems. 3.1.4 Natural resource base and management In the effort to reverse the impact of land degradation, extensive soil and water conservation (SWC) measures have been carried out in the region as a whole and in Wello in particular. The DEM of the study area reveals that lands with slopes between 15% and 30% account for 28% of the total out of which a large proportion is used for cereal crop production. The area covered by farmland terraces accounts for only 11% of the total area (Table 3.2). A comparison of the area covered by the SWC interventions with the area that demands interventions based on slope indicates that still a lot has to be done. Information obtained from agriculture offices shows that construction of the SWC structures, maintenance operation and tree plantations require a large labor force, high financial investments and a great amount of material. Table 3.2 Soil and water conservation interventions up to 2009 SWC intervention North Wello South Wello Total Cultivated land Farmland terrace (ha) 103377 215965 319342 Cutoff drains (km) 15088 25236 40324 Water way (km) 2969 77685 80654 Other structures (km) 38778 38778 Mountain and hillside protection Area closure (ha) 32620 91914 124534 Hillside terrace (ha) 1396119 81258 1477377 Other structures (No) 11452700 20939163 32391863 Gully treatment Check dam construction (km) 9329 151627 160956 Closed gullies (ha) 3913 153313 157226 Source: North and South Wello Agriculture and Rural Development offices 30

Study area and general methodology 3.1.5 Demography Wello is characterized by high population (Table 3.3). The population density of Wello (134 persons km -2 ) is higher than the national average (84 persons km -2 ) (Eyasu 2002; CSA 2008). The population of the Amhara region grew at an annual rate of 1.7% between 1994 and 2007, which is a lower rate than in the previous censuses. It was also almost 50% lower than the national growth rate. On the other hand, Wello has limitation of agriculturally suitable lands. Agricultural potential (� 15% slope) and marginally suitable land (15-30% slope) accounts for about 60%. Considering the area that can be used for most agricultural activities in relation to the population, the density is higher than the overall Ethiopian density and is estimated to be about 235 person km -2 . Table 3.3 Human population of North and South Wello zones in 2007 Urban Rural Urban + Rural Zone Female Male Male Female Male Female Total North Wello 55659 6060 678294 669330 754354 748929 1503283 South Wello 147164 155497 1101799 1114990 1248963 1270487 2519450 Total 302823 231557 1780093 1784320 2003317 2019416 4022733 Source: CSA, 2008. In recent three decades, people have migrated from the zones due to both own and government initiatives. People from drought-affected northern parts of the country including Wello were taken to other parts such as Metekel, Metema, Beni-Shangul- Gumuz, Gambella and Kefa for resettlement. These resettlements continued sporadically until recent times. However, the recent resettlements have been on a voluntary basis where interested individuals moved to relatively open areas within the same region (Sørensen and Bekele 2009). Other forms of population outflow in the area are self-initiated short- and long-term migration to cities and towns for casual work. In most cases, temporary migration is by those who have some farmland, while long-term migration is mostly by the landless (Sonneveld and Keyzer 2003; Sørensen and Bekele 2009). The population outflow has reduced pressure on the land, which could slow further expansion of cultivation and grazing on marginal lands. 3.2 General methodology The study evaluated the impact of SWC measures to maintain and/or rehabilitate 31

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