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Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Study area and general

Study area and general methodology degraded lands. Out of the different conservation measures, the role of farmland terrace and exclosure in maintaining or restoring soil fertility and crop yield was evaluated. In addition, LULC and NDVI change were used to track the rate and extent of land rehabilitation and/or degradation. Exclosure impact analysis was conducted in Gubalafto district in the North Wello zone, while evaluation of the impact of farmland terracing on soil fertility and crop yield was performed in Maybar watershed at the Maybar soil conservation research site (MSCRS) in the South Wello zone. The entire North and South Well zones were covered by the LULC and NDVI dynamics detection (Figure 3.6). The LULC and NDVI change analysis, and exclosure and farmland terracing impact evaluations were used to determine the role of SWC intervention on restoration of degraded lands. Moreover, the NDVI analysis was used to identify vegetation degradation hotspots. Figure 3.6 Location of sampling and study sites: (a) Wello in Amhara region, (b) Albuko and Gubalafto Weredas in Wello, (c) Exclosures sampling sites in Gubalafto Wereda, and d) Maybar watershed in Albuko Wereda 32

Study area and general methodology Land use-land cover and normalized difference vegetation index analysis The main purpose of the analysis was to quantify the direction and extent of land useland cover (LULC) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dynamics as indicators of land restoration resulting from SWC interventions. The LULC and NDVI dynamics analysis was done for the entire North and South Wello zones. The analysis used satellite data and ground-truth data. Ground-truth data collecting was supported by base maps that were developed using unsupervised classification of satellite data. Moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) data with nearly 215,000 meter squier (463 m by 463 m pixel size) resolution were used. MODIS images and NDVI data between 2000 and 2010 were downloaded for free online. Out of all data sets, cloud-free images captured between January and March of each year were selected, and images of similar time used for the analysis. Details of image pre- and post-processing steps and classification results are discussed in Chapter 4. Similarly, in order to evaluate the depth and extent of land restoration due to the SWC and identify vegetation degradation hotspots, NDVI data of 2000 to 2010 were analyzed (Chapter 4). Performance of farmland terracing in soil fertility and crop productivity The role of farmland terrace in maintaining soil fertility was analyzed based on change in soil nutrient states and crop yield. The study was conducted in Lake Maybar watershed, particularly at the Maybar soil conservation research site (MSCRS). MSCRS is one of six soil conservation research sites in Ethiopia established in 1982. The project has constructed SWC structures, established baseline data and different setups such as field plots, and meteorological and river gauge stations. The project has been monitoring crop yield on fixed and non-fixed plots in both cropping seasons (Belg and Kiremt) since 1983. In this study, yield data collected by the project between 1995 and 2009 from fixed plots were utilized (Chapter 6). The MSCRS soil survey report conducted in 1983 (Weigel, 1986) was used as baseline to compare soil fertility change across terraces age. The MSCRS test plots were classified in different slopes and sampled at different terrace positions. The change in soil nutrients was evaluated by comparing the baseline and current survey result across space and time (Chapter 5). 33

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