5 years ago

Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Land use-land cover and

Land use-land cover and normalized difference vegetation index changes in Wello community and local authority to implement SWC measures. Moreover, in areas where the successful conservation interventions started earlier, the practices are well replicated. For example, various exclosures in Guba-Lafto, Tehuledere and Dessie- Zuria, Ware-Illu, Ambasel, Jama, Legambo and Tenta, some parts of western Bugna, southeast Gidan, and parts of Mekdla districts particularly along the main highway are well established and in most cases have developed to forest. Therefore, the major driver of the current LULC change in Wello is government policy. However, natural resource conservation policy interventions should be accompanied by intensive awareness rising programs, designing and implementation of alternative livelihood and household energy options. 4.4 Summary and conclusions SWC interventions such as hillside terracing, exclosure and tree plantations were implemented. Emphasis was put on drought-prone areas, e.g., Wello. Although natural resources restoration has been carried out in the past three decades, the contribution of the interventions to LULC has not been sufficiently studied. Therefore, this study analyzed the spatial and temporal LULC and NDVI change due to the SWC measures, particularly regarding exclosure. The study was conducted in North and South Wello zones of Amhara National Regional State, and employed a remote sensing approach using MODIS data of 2000 to 2010 to detect LULC and NDVI changes. The MODS data were classified using supervised classification and NDVI spatio-temporal variations analysis. Results of the analysis were compared with a DEM. Both the LULC and inter-annual NDVI change analysis reveal considerable dynamics between 2000 and 2010. The NDVI of the period 2000 to 2010 in selected months (January to April) showed remarkable change. The area covered by a NDVI value of >0.4 increased from 3.6% in 2000 to 16.1% in 2010, whereas NDVI values of 0.3 to 0.4 increased from 27.6% in 2000 to 30% in 2010, which indicate vegetation restoration. The study area was classified in five LULC types: i) forest, ii) degraded woody vegetation, iii) grassland/woody grassland, iv) cultivated/others land and v) water bodies with 79.2% and 76% classification accuracy level for year 2000 and 2009 images, respectively. The area covered by cultivated/others land, forest and water- 58

Land use-land cover and normalized difference vegetation index changes in Wello bodies showed only very slight change. In contrast, there were considerable differences in the area covered by degraded woody vegetation and grassland/woody grassland. Degraded woody vegetation decreased from 19.7% in 2000 to 6.7% in 2009, while grassland/woody grassland increased by 14.6% in 2009. The DEM indicated that the area of steep and very steep (> 30% slope) landscape accounts for 40%. Larger parts of steep slope landscapes are covered by forest and woody grassland. In the recent years, despite the continued population growth, vegetation cover has shown remarkable improvement, which indicates population growth is no more driving the change. On the other hand, government placed various policy actions to restore degraded lands. Therefore, major driver of the current LULC change is likely attributed to government policy measures concerning SWC. However, differences in policy implementation and rehabilitation showed spatial variation. The variation following government policy implementation could be due to awareness/experience and local stakeholder commitment differences. Local stakeholders include local authorities (Kebele and Wereda), communities and NGOs. The rehabilitation interventions were found enhanced where people had prior SWC experience and NGOs were involved. The following can be concluded from the analysis: i. The SWC interventions, particularly exclosure, changed the LULC. ii. Due to exclosure, vegetation cover of degraded lands had been restored. However, farmers perceived exclosures compete with grazing lands. iii. The LULC change before 1980´s in Wello was likely attributed to agricultural land expansion due to population growth, while the recent change could be due to government policy interventions in soil and water conservation. 59

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