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5 years ago

Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Die Wirksamkeit von Boden

Performance of farmland

Performance of farmland terraces in maintaining crop productivity based on individual farmer decisions. Yield monitoring was done for barley (Hordeum spp), wheat (Triticum spp), maize (Zea mays), teff (Eragrostis tef), emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum), field pea (Pisum sativum), horse bean (Vicia faba) and lentil (Lens culinaris). Cereals and pulses are mainly sown in the Belg and Kiremt seasons, respectively. Barley and emmer wheat are mainly cultivated during the Belg season, and teff and field pea in the Kiremt season. Maize is sown during the Belg season and harvested after the Kiremt. Thus, yield data of both seasons were used in the analysis. Out of the available data, yields of all crops except lentil were statistically analyzed. As lentil is rarely cultivated, it was excluded in this analysis. This study used yield data of 1995 through 2009 except for the year 2002, when no data were available. In order to compare yield changes across the terrain, the fixed plots were grouped in slope classes by the use of a digital elevation model (DEM) (Figure 6.1). Accordingly, the fixed plots were grouped as gently sloping (3 - 5%), sloping (5 - 8%), strongly sloping (8 - 15%) and moderately steep (15-30%), which is adopted from FAO system of classification (FAO, 2006). Figure 6.1 Fixed plots with DEM-generated slope map 86

Performance of farmland terraces in maintaining crop productivity Crop yield data monitoring has been carried out annually in both cropping seasons on the three terrace positions at randomly selected terraces on the fixed plots. The position on the terrace refers to the relative location of the sample plots between successive terraces. The size of a sampling plot was 4 m 2 (2 m x 2 m). The plots were located at three positions inside the terrace, i.e., low-terrace (A), mid-terrace (B) and upterrace (C) positions (Figure 6.2). For design of the sampling plots see Chapter 5. Figure 6.2 Terrace positions (A) low-, (B) mid-, and (C) up-terrace It is important to note that each fixed plot may or may not be cultivated in both seasons depending on the farmer plans and climatic conditions, particularly the adequacy of the Belg rain. As a result, data size varies with year and season. As the total numbers of fixed plots were 40, thus the maximum possible samples in a season were 120, as sampling was on three terraces positions (low-, mid-, up-). However, in the analysis years 1995 to 2009, the maximum number of fixed plots cultivated in a season was 37, i.e., a total of 111 samples. Yield gradient calculations were done in ton per hectare (t h -1 ). However, the calculation did not consider the area lost due to the terrace construction despite the fact that measurement in this study showed 2% to 12% of farm land occupied by terraces whereby, on average, 6% of the land comes out of crop 87

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