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Technological Extinctions of Industrial Firms: An Inquiry into their ...

Technological Extinctions of Industrial Firms: An Inquiry into their ...

Nafcillin Wyeth

Nafcillin Wyeth 1964-1990 Beecham 1975-1976, 1984-1988, 1990-1991 Bristol 1975-1977, 1979-1985, 1987 Dicloxacillin Bristol 1966-1979, 1981-1985 Beecham 1968-1992 Wyeth 1968, 1970-1975, 1977-1989 Biocraft 1983-1993 Kanasco 1990, 1992 Hetacillin Bristol 1966-1979, 1981-1991 Carbenicillin† [Innovation dated as 1969 by Achilladelis] *Beecham 1970-1985, 1987, 1989†† *Pfizer 1972-1986, 1988 Biocraft 1986 Amoxicillin Beecham 1973-1993 Biocraft 1976-1993 Bristol 1977-1993 Trade Enterprises 1978-1979 Wyeth 1980-1985 Kanasco 1986-1992 Ticarcillin Beecham 1976-1993 Azlocillin† [*Developed 1978 by Bayer (Germany)] Cyclacillin Wyeth 1978-1985 Bristol 1984-1985 Biocraft 1986, 1988 Epicillin Trade Enterprises 1978-1982 Kanasco 1986 Piperacillin Bristol 1982-1993 Amdinocillin† [*Developed 1984 by Roche (Switzerland)] Sulbactam† [*Developed 1986 by Pfizer] Floxacillin Beecham 1989†† *Innovating firm. †Major innovation according to Achilladelis [1993]. X Identity of producer kept confidential in Synthetic Organic Chemicals. ††Beecham may have continued production of carbenicillin and floxacillin after 1989. After 1987, Synthetic Organic Chemicals does not specify all of the semisynthetic penicillins produced solely by Beecham. Sources: Synthetic Organic Chemicals, FTC [1958], and Achilladelis [1993].

Table 16 U.S. Production by Type of Penicillin (Metric Tons), 1948-1980 Natural Semisynthetic Total Year G Pot. G Proc. V Other Ampic. Other 1948 14 17 0 34 0 0 48 1949 28 35 0 13 0 0 69 1950 42 60 0 19 0 0 112 1951 61 96 0 25 0 0 171 1952 73 93 0 37 0 0 185 1953 57 120 0 45 0 0 204 1954 84 144 0 54 0 0 258 1955 46 108 10 57 0 0 196 1956 54 165 42 43 0 0 286 1957 81 174 — 60 0 0 315 1958 44 123 — 68 0 0 234 1959 89 139 — 30 0 257 1960 123 227 — 40 0 390 1965 240 227 — 191 — — 1114 1970 983 990 — 610 310 90 3097 1975 990 — — 1687 321 131 3129 1980 1247 — — 1707 437 365 3757 Sources: FTC [1958, p. 73], Scholz [1992, p. E].

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