Table 17 Real Average Price of Penicillin, 1945-1980 Year Price per Pound 1945 $5291 1950 266 1955 89 1960 69 1965 11 1970 18 1975 8 1980 8 Source: Synthetic Organic Chemicals, various years.
Table 18 Categories of Penicillin Process Innovation Penicillium Strains & Media Development of higher-yield cultures by mutation and testing Investigation of mold life cycles and effects of seed pellet form New chemicals for fermentation medium More efficient antifoams Fermentation & Control Higher-power agitators in fermentation vessels Improved air sterilization filters Automated monitoring of acidity, carbon dioxide output, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and antifoam Automated pumps to control pH and add fermentation ingredients, precursors, and antifoam when necessary Continuous sterilization of medium Computer control of fermentation Semisynthetics Production means for 6-APA, through direct fermentation or via penicillin G Product-specific synthetic methods from 6-APA Filtration, Extraction, and Packaging of Penicillin New methods of filtration New methods of extraction (Podbelniak extractors, solvent-only extractors) Solvent recovery systems New methods of drying (radio frequency dehydration) More efficent sterile packaging machines Waste Treatment Rationalization of waste treatment using trickling filters & other equipment Source: Authors' review of literature (see text)
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Demonstrates why outstanding companies that had their competitive antennae up, listened astutely to customers, and invested aggressively in new technologies still lost their market dominance. Drawing on patterns of innovation in a variety of industries, this book argues that good business practices can, nevertheless, weaken a great firm.