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Technological Extinctions of Industrial Firms: An Inquiry into their ...

Technological Extinctions of Industrial Firms: An Inquiry into their ...

Table 2 Major Automobile

Table 2 Major Automobile Product Innovations Through 1940 Year Firm(s) Innovation Transilience Engines 1895 Haynes- Apperson Aluminum Engine 5 1896 King En-Bloc Engine 5 1902 Locomobile 4-Cylinder, Front Mounted Engine 4 1902 Northern Three Point Suspension of Power Unit 5 1908 Ford Detachable Cylinder Heads 6 1913 Studebaker First Production Six Cylinder Engine Cast in a Single Block of Gray Cast Iron 4 1914 Cadillac (GM) First Large Scale Production V-8 Engine 7 1916 Hudson Counter-Balancing of Crankshaft in Multiple- Cylinder (6) Engine 4 1920 Packard Lanchester Vibration Dampener 4 1921 Duesenberg, Kenworthy Straight-Eight (or in-line) Engine 4 1922 Duesenberg Overhead Camshaft Engine 4 1922 Nash Rubber Engine Mounts 5 1924 Cadillac (GM) Balanced V-Type 8 Cylinder Engine 5 1924 Cadillac (GM) Crankcase Ventilation 5 1925 Chrysler High Compression L-Head Engine 4 1926 Oakland (GM) L-6 Engine (Begins Low Stroke-to-Bore Ratio Trend) 5 1932 Chrysler Valve-Seat Inserts in Cast-Iron Cylinder Blocks 4 Carburetion/Fuel 1910 Adams-Farwell Early Fuel Injection System 4 1917 Studebaker Internal Manifold “Hot Spot” on the Intake Manifold 4 1923 Cadillac (GM) Thermostatic Carburetion Control 4 1930 Chrysler Stromberg-Supplied Downdraft Carburetor 4 Ignition 1899 Packard Automatic Spark Advance 4

Table 2 (continued) Year Firm(s) Innovation Transilience Transmission (Including Gears, Clutch, Rear Axle) 1893 Duryea Single Plate Clutch 4 1901 Autocar First Shaft-Driven American Car 5 1902 Northern Planetary Gear Set 5 1902 Northern Unit Powerplant (Integral Engine and 5 Transmission Unit) 1904 Ford Torque Tube Drive 4 1913 Packard Spiral Bevel Gear (Noiseless Rear Axle) 4 1927 Packard Hypoid Gears in Rear Axle 5 1929 Cadillac (GM) “Synchromesh” Transmission 3 1935 Chrysler Automatic Overdrive Transmission 4 1939 Chrysler Fluid or Hydraulic Coupling (Replaced 5 1940 Oldsmobile (GM) Mechanical Flywheel) “Hydra-Matic” Automatic Transmission 7 Bodies (Including Coating/Finishing) 1898 Columbus Enclosed Car Body of Wood and Steel 4 1912 Hupmobile, Oakland (GM) All-Steel Open Car Body 6 1913 Hudson Sedan-Type Body 4 1917 Ford Baked Enamel Finishes 6 1922 Hudson Inexpensive Closed Car Built of Wood and Steel 7 1923 Dodge All-Steel, Closed Sedan Car Body 5 1924 Oakland (GM) Lacquer Paint Finish (DUCO Pyroxolin) 6 1925 Ford Pyroxolin Paints in Multicolors 4 1935 GM Turret Top (First All-Steel, Outer Shell Top Supported by Wooden Nails) 4 Suspension (Including Frame, Springs, Cushions) 1903 A.O.Smith Pressed Steel Frame 5 1926 Chrysler Engine Isolated from Frame 4 1929 Auburn; Cord X-Shaped Cross Member Frame 4 1934 GM Knee-Action Independent Front Wheel Suspension 6 1935 Studebaker “Planar” Front Wheel Suspension 5

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