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COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

Framework generally

Framework generally followed by political market framework of local land use policy change. This section provides the action situations and actors in land use political market. Then, I provide various theoretical underpinnings on four contextual variable set: institutions, community characteristics, physical characteristics of community, and institutional moderating influence. Local land use policy changes are applied for the political market framework generating hypotheses driven by four variable sets in the Chapter Three. This is followed in Chapter Four by a discussion of the data, procedure of data collections, and summary tables of indicators. This Chapter also introduces the two separated models for conservation amendments (Panel Probit Model) and ratio of large to small scale amendments of future land use (Heckman Selection Model). Chapter Five provides the parameter estimates of both models implemented in this research. Implications and further studies of this research are followed ending with conclusion. 15

CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK What is Institution?: Definition and Scope Grafstein (1988) argues that scholars must not ignore the existence of institutions. Because institutions are created by humans, they imply norms, values, beliefs, and purposes of the humans who devised them. Thus, they shape what and how humans do when they face a social problem and provide allowable actions that humans can do. So, institutions really matter for a policy making process (Riker 1982). However, “institutions matter” differently in policy analysis depending on how institution is defined and what scope of institution is applied (Ostrom et al. 1994). Therefore, definition and scope of institution should be discussed in advance for further conducting policy analysis. There have been little agreements on what the institution is. The definition of institution varies for the purposes of the researches. Riker (1982 p. 4) defines institutions as “rules about behavior, especially about making decision.” North (1990 p.3) define institutions as “….the rules of the game in a society or, more formally, are the humanly devised constraints that shape human interaction. In consequence they structure incentives in human exchange, whether political, social, or economic.” As the definition implies, institutions define and limit the set of behaviors and choices of individuals (North 1990 p.4). Institutions provide incentives for individuals to do something or prohibit for them from doing something. Therefore, institutions are frameworks “within which human interaction takes place” (North 1990 p.4; see also Ostrom 1999). 16

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