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COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

Rather than using

Rather than using North’s definition, I follow Ostrom’s definition of institutions 27 . Ostrom (1986 p.5) initially defines institutions as rules “that refer to prescriptions commonly known and used by a set of participants to order repetitive, interdependent relationships.” In this study, I use institution as “the set of rules actually used (working rules or rules-in-use) by individuals or a set of individuals to organize repetitive activities that produce outcomes affecting those individuals and potentially affecting others” (Ostrom 1999 p.51). Therefore, institution in local land use regulations is the set of working rules for actors in local land use decision making process to refer when they choose and change land use policies in a community. The rules in decision making process determines who is eligible to make decisions, what actions are allowed or constrained, what procedures must be followed, what information must or must not be provided, and what costs and payoffs will be assigned to individuals as a result of their actions 28 (Ostrom 1999). The scope of institution does matter also. Institutions can be formal and informal. As North (199) argues, even though formal institutions are pre-condition on development policy, informal institutions should be considered. In addition, using formal institutions only in the policy analysis may lead to omitted variable bias 29 statistically (Wooldridge 2002). Thus, the scope of institutions includes informal institutions as well as formal institutions. Formal institution is defined as the law sphere, with constitutions, regulations, and organizations. Informal institution is a set of norms, conventions, moral values, religious belief and traditions, and other behavioral norms that determine individual behavior in pursuit of their aim (North 1990; Ostrom 1986, 1990). As discussed earlier, institutions matter on human behaviors. William Riker (1982, p.20) told that “we cannot study simply tastes and values, but must study institutions as well.” However, institutions have been studied under the assumption that 27 Ostrom (1986) argues that the definition of rules of game seems to include the physical and behavioral laws. These laws might not change even though the rules actors use change. Institutions as rules are important variables because rules are subject to change. From a communicating perspective, unclear definition may lead to misunderstanding the entire process of policy analysis. So, to avoid this problem, I follow Ostrom’s definition. 28 These are equivalent to the various incentives and constraints that types of rules in IAD framework can provide. 29 If an analysis misses an important independent variable, that mean the parameter estimates are biased with incorrect standard errors as well as the model is poorly specified. 17

other relevant institutional variables are controlled and unchanging (Ostrom 1986; Ostrom et al. 1994). Ostrom (1986, p.16) argue that “ instead of studying the effect of change of one rule on outcomes, regardless of the other rules in effect, we need to carefully state which other rules are in effect which condition the relationships produced by a change in any particular rule.” This means that we must study institutions in a form of configuration, not one particular rule out of context of the other rules simultaneously in effect. Thus, we have to start to study institutions with identification of various rules and laws related to a policy area (Ostrom 1986, 1999). The Institutional Analysis and Development Framework Description of IAD framework Scholars and students at the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, Indiana University have developed the IAD framework (Ostrom, 1986, 1990; Oakerson, 1992; Tang 1992; Ostrom et at., 1994). They started to develop this framework because the policy research on public goods and common pool resources at the multiple levels needs various disciplinary theories and frameworks. This is why the framework is a multidisciplinary tool. The IAD framework bases its roots in classical political economy, neoclassic microeconomic theory, institutional economics, public choice theory, transaction cost economics and non-cooperative game theory (Ostrom et al 1994; see also Koontz 2005). IAD framework tries to provide a categorization of the broad policy environment to allow for generalizability among differing policy situation. The most important concept in the framework is “action arena,” which consists of “action situation,” and “actors” (Ostrom 1999). This conceptual block (see the Figure 1) provides a place where scholars analyze, predict, and explain behaviors within a certain institutional settings. Ostrom (1999) refers action arena as: The social spaces where individuals interact, exchange goods and services, solve problems, dominate one another, or fight (among the many things that individuals do in action arena). 18

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