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COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

aspects of action arena

aspects of action arena including actors and action situations. In the local land use policy, the information of these is well developed in the political market approach of Feiock (1994; 2004) and Lubell et al (2005). Thus, in this research, I conceptualize action arena as “political market,” within which actors act in a certain way regarding land use policy decisions. Actors need to be identified within the action arena. Land use regulation at the local level depends on the behavior of several actors. Feiock (1999) argues that land use regulation policy is a political process. This is consistent with Alston’s (1996) argument that the policy change is the result of political process or contract between demanders and suppliers. Hence, various political actors are the primary actors that affect the decision making process. Actors include suppliers such as council members, mayors, planners, and demanders such as members of social networks, interest groups, residents, and etc. In this action arena, action situation refers to the specific type of interaction that the actors engage in to arrive at a certain decision (say, conservation amendments). Thus, in this research, action situation is local land use policy making process. The action situation, for example, is the possible conflict situation that arises between development interest groups and council members. The behaviors of the actors in this action situation are explained by a set of contextual variables such as attributes of physical worlds, attributes of community, rules-in-use, and interaction of the three variable sets. Building and testing political market framework based upon the IAD framework directly creates a problem that it cannot see the influence of each individual variable because the IAD framework sees the policy outcome as the function of combination of three variable sets. This nature of the IAD framework is a barrier to conduct a quantitative analysis. To address this problem and construct a comprehensive model, I revised the framework that can reflect moderating role of institutions (configuration in Ostrom’s words) as well as the additive influence of each variable set. Figure 2 shows political market framework of local land use policy built upon the IAD framework. This model is consistent with Ostrom’s (1999) assertion that scholars need to understand the value of other variables rather than simply asserting that they are held constant. Hence, the fourth (4) variable set is a moderating variable set of institutions. This indicates that preferences are not constant depending on the institutional arrangements. The political 23

market framework explains how these variable sets influence the value of variables characterizing action arenas. This section explains how these sets of variables in the model of local land use policy can be animated, emphasizing theoretical underpinnings on each variable set. Institution Community Interests Physical Characteristics Moderating Political Market Local Land Use Policy Decision Suppliers Demander Adapted from Ostrom (1999) Figure 2. Political Market Framework of Local Land Use Policy Change Outcome Contextual Variables Constraining Local Land Use Policy Change Physical characteristics. The first thing in the institutional analysis is to define the nature of the good that is engaged in the action situation because types of goods are important consequential impact on policy outcomes. Ostrom et al. (1994) divide types of goods into four types, integrating Samuelson’s attribute (jointness of consumption) and Musgrave’s attribute (excludability) 31 . In this sense, common pool resources are the one 31 Samuelson (1954) used the attribute of jointness of consumption to divide all goods into two classes: private consumption goods and public consumption goods. Meanwhile Musgrave (1959) suggested a different attribute of goods: excludability-whether or not someone can be excluded from benefiting once the good is produced. He then divided goods into public and private goods by using this principle. Using these two attributes, Ostrom et al. (1994) made four types of goods: 1) private goods; 2) toll goods; 3) common-pool resources; 4) public goods. 24

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