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COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

provide the rules and

provide the rules and procedures of collective choices, which are embodied in the structure of local legislative and executive institutions. However, these political institutions have been studied based upon their additive influence on the policy outcomes (Feiock and Kim 2002; Feiock 1999; Clingermeyer and Feiock 2001). Various rules in these political institutions are interconnected in terms of their consequences. For example, veto power that mayor has provides different impact on the policy outcome rather than non veto power. So, even though a city has mayor form of government and the mayor does not have veto power, the policy consequence may be different from the one of mayor form of government with veto power. Moderating role of institutions. The motivation of establishing the IAD framework is that political economist view has limitation to the extent that institutional impacts have been seen as too additive. The same set of rules may yield entirely different types of action situations depending upon the types of events in the world being acted upon by participants (Ostrom 1999). In a reverse logic, participants’ and community interests always go through the decision making process to be articulated. This means that influence of the community interests depends on various institutional characteristics that a community has. Political market framework, which Feiock and Lubell (Feiock 1999; Kang and Feiock 2006; Lubell et al. 2005) have developed, support this idea, arguing the political institutions may have mediating role of interest group influence. Political institution is an agreement or consensus, which affect the distribution of costs and benefits in local policy arena (Gerber and Phillips 2004). The structure or arrangement of local governing body provides information of costs and benefits that citizens and other actors may consider to articulate their preferences in a policy. Some preferences may face higher transaction costs and lower benefits when they go through these political institutions (Lubell et al. 2005; Ostrom 1986, 2005). Thus, when it is hard for people to give a life to their preferences as a policy in terms of transaction costs, they may choose a strategic behavior of doing nothing. Or, in a reverse logic, the political institutions, in a way of increasing transaction costs, do not allow some preferences into being a policy and being reflected in a policy. 33

Like this, even though a city has a certain community characteristic, the influence of community interests may depend on the political institutions. Furthermore, this institutional influence is not limited to the formal (political) institutions. Informal institutions also affect the impact of other variables. In this framework, this institutional moderating impact on community characteristics is conceptualized for accurate explanation of local land use policy change. 34

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