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COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

ecommendation regarding

ecommendation regarding local comprehensive plan amendments and Development of Regional Impacts (DRIs) permit process. RPC does not have formal regulatory power. The authority of local land use regulation belongs to local governing bodies and state agencies. However, RPCs plays like an information clearing house of local, regional, and state planning issues. Especially, RPC provides technical and organizational means to help for the local governments to address their issues that go beyond political and administrative boundaries. In addition, RPC plays a leadership role capable of addressing regional issues. In addition, RPC actively interact with state level organizations such as Department of Transportation, Department of Environmental Protection, and Water Management District as well as Department of Community Affairs. These series of activities work as key factors of reserving pro-environmental values in RPCs. For example, DRI permit process is just like environmental impact analysis (Rooy 2004), which may provide pro-environmental values to the organization. The RPC board meeting consists of local government representatives (council member) and relevant state and regional organizations. From the meeting, local government council member receives information of other cities’ planning issues and state and regional planning issues. This may provide norms and conventions of pro-environmental concerns as well as new and unique information regarding local land use policy. This could increase the possibility for them to be pro-environmental entrepreneurs (Scheider et al. 1995), which in turn reflect their values in the land use policy making process. Thus, the linkage of local governments to RPC could provide higher possibility to have pro-environmental land use policy change. So, local governments that have a linkage with RPC, either by sitting on the council meeting or having membership, have better position to get pro-environmental values, which, in turn, increase possibility of pro-environmental local land use policy change. H3-6: Cities’ linkages to RPC will increase the likelihood of the proenvironmental amendments to the local comprehensive plans. 53

Moderating Roles of Institutions Institutions matter for policy decision making process. However, the concern is that the impact has been analyzed independently and additively. As Ostrom (1999) argues, the political economist’s view deemphasizes the community and physical characteristics’ impact. Moreover, I believe that community and physical characteristics’ impact are too emphasized as deterministic view research trends (Fleischmann and Pierannunzi 1990). Therefore, it is necessary to understand impact of institutions with other variables’ value rather than to insist other variables are constant. Even though a community faces lots of growth problems, the existent institutions moderate those impacts on the policy outcomes. Recently, many scholars have worked regarding this institutional moderating role. For example, Gerber and Phillips (2004) argue that antigrowth interests are upper hand when the urban growth boundary policies are decided through direct democracy institutions. Lubell et al. (2005) also tested the political institutions’ moderating roles in conservation amendments in Florida counties, suggesting that the influence of development interests is different depending on local political institutions. The IAD framework suggests that three variable sets are combined in a configural rather than an additive manner. Therefore, to remedy the above partial explanations about the local land use policy decision making, and to be consistent with the IAD framework, it is necessary to add another variable set, institutional moderating variable set, into the current model. However, in this quantitative analysis, it is too difficult to conceptualize all of possible configurations of variable sets. Hence, in this study, configuration is limited to only theoretically coherent combinations of variables. In this section, I provide how formal (executive and legislative institutions) and informal institution (network structure) moderate the influence of environmental interest variable in this model. Executive institution and environmental interest. The strong mayor-council form of government has been argued that it provides responsiveness while the managercouncil form was developed to increase efficiency and reduce corruptions at the expense of responsiveness (Maser 1998). In mayor-council form cities, mayors usually focus on 54

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