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COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

level since 1994. For

level since 1994. For city conservation amendment, data is available from 1997 through 2005. Table 1. Frequencies of Conservation Amendments Offered from 1997 to 2005 Conservation Frequency Percent Number of Amendments 0 3526 97.5 0 1 39 1.07 39 2 15 0.41 30 3 3 0.08 9 4 2 0.05 8 5 4 0.11 20 6 8 0.22 48 7 3 0.08 21 8 2 0.05 16 9 1 0.03 9 11 1 0.03 22 12 2 0.05 24 15 1 0.03 15 17 1 0.03 17 20 1 0.03 20 22 1 0.03 22 23 1 0.03 23 33 3 0.08 99 34 1 0.03 34 59 1 0.03 59 63 2 0.05 126 1 two cities were missing. So, total amendment year units are 3636. 3618 1 100 661 The most critical nature of the conservation amendments is that the amendments were not offered in every year. Table 1 provides the frequencies of local conservation amendments during 1997 through 2005. When cities amend their conservation element, one or two times of amendments occurred mostly in a year. As Table 1 indicates, 661 amendments were offered in total in this period, while most years provide zero amendment years. Previous study by Lubell et al. (2005) used ZIP (Zero Inflated Poisson) model to deal with this problem at the county level. However, 92 non-zero observations is inadequate for that model. With too many zeros in the data, OLS with panel correction also does not provide robust results (Wooldridge 2002). Therefore, I recoded the data into a dummy variable. I recoded 1 if a city offered one or more 59

conservation amendments in a certain year and 0 if it did not. Table 2 shows that conservation amendments were only submitted in 92 (2.53%) of the 3618 city year units that I observe from 1997 through 2005. Table 2. Frequencies of Local Conservation Amendments coded by Dummy Conservation Amendment Frequencies Percent 0 1 3,526 92 97.47 2.53 Total 3,618 100.00 Ratio of Large/Small Scale Amendments of Future Land Use Element The second dependent variable is the ratio of large scale to small scale amendments of future land use map in cities’ comprehensive plans. There are various ways to measure how pro-environmental a local plan amendment is 44 . One of measure for this is the ratio of large to small scale amendments of future land use map. Future land use map proposes the intended land use and type, and density and intensity of the use within local boundary 45 . Table 3. Large Scale Amendments for Future Land Use Map Large Scale Frequency Percent Number of Amendments 0 2516 69.2 0 1 725 19.9 725 2 284 7.8 586 3 79 2.2 237 4 10 0.3 40 5 3 0.08 15 3618 100.0 1603 44 For example, Lubell et al. (2008) measure pro-environmental dimension of amendments by using an index of general plan amendments that reflect the balance of pro- vs. anti environmental dimension in an amendment cycle and also using a yearly single family housing permits indicator. 45 Section 163.3177 (6)(a): “a future land sue plan element designating proposed future general distribution, location, and extent of the uses of land for residential uses, commercial uses, industry, agriculture, recreation, conservation, education, public buildings and grounds, other public facilities, and other categories of the public and private uses of land.” 60

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