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COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

also provide the

also provide the authority to both mayor and CAO. So, this category is included into code 1 since still mayor is the last person who finally submits the budget recommendation to the city council. So the total number of budget authority to the mayor is 61. Table 5. Executive Political Institutions* FOG 1 CAO 2 BUDGET 3 MDIR 4 MVET 5 1 120 285 61 265 54 0 278 110 319 118 321 Total 398 395 380 383 375 * This data is cross sectional since it is time-invariant 1 Form of government: Strong Mayor 1, others 0 2 Chief Administrative Officer: Exist 1, others 0 3 Budget recommendation authority: Mayor or mayor combined 1, others 0 4 Mayor directly elected by voters 1, others 0 5 Mayor have veto power 1, others 0 Election types are measured by the proportion of the council members elected by district among the total council members. Much of previous literature (Weber and Brace 1999) used election type variables as dummy variables. Many Florida cities (57 cities) adopted district or district and at-large mixed forms of election systems. So, the dummy coding does not reflect the actual dimension of consequences of election types. As the table 6 indicates, 24 (6.4%) Florida cities elect their council members only based on district. These cities will be designated by 100% of proportion. 33 (8.8%) other cities also use partially district election. However, most cities use at-large election for selecting their council members (318 cities). Table 6. Legislative Political Institutions* Frequencies percent At large 318 84.8 District 24 6.4 Mixed of Both 33 8.8 Total 375 100.0 * This data is cross sectional since it is time-invariant 65

It is difficult to gather information of actual expenditures of planning activities at city level. Florida Statistical Abstract only provides county level information of planning activities. In addition, much variations of structure of planning activities do not allow ideal measurement on this. So, to measure administrative capacity influence on the local land use policy change, I collected the budget expenditures of comprehensive planning activities 53 . The data is available from the local government yearly report of their financial activities in the Florida Department of Financial Services website. To control the frequent burst of local comprehensive planning expenditure, I used three year moving averages for the measurement of local government expenditure. Moving average is useful because it can control the short-term fluctuation of financial trends especially in the time series or panel data set (Wooldridge 2002). Turnover variable is measured by percentage of new council members to the previous year. The data is available in the Feiock and his colleagues’ NSF project of local land use politics. Data was gathered from the membership directories issued annually by the Florida League of Cities. The directory provides the names of executives and council members as well as various department heads. The change of the name between directories indicates the member turnover. The data is available from 1989 to 2005. In this research, I used the turnover percentage from 1996 through 2004 54 . Table 7. City’s RPC Membership or Participation in Executive Board Meeting RPC Freq. Percent 0 2,552 70.71 1 1,057 29.29 Total 3,609 100 Informal institution. Informal institutions are measured by the two network characteristics: network bonding communities and network flowing information. Many network scholars argue that the measure of the networks involve counting contacts and 53 Comprehensive planning expenditures are limited because they do not show exactly cities’ planning capacity. The expenditure does not show up when a city does not do anything regarding comprehensive planning issues. 54 Cities that changed their number of council members were controlled. 66

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