Views
5 years ago

COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

13Population +

13Population + β14Population change + β15Population Density + β 17Water/Land + β18Shoreline + β19tEAR + β20tInteraction + εit Heckman Selection Model for the Ratio of Large/Small Scale Amendment for Future Land Use Map The data for this model is the ratio of large to small scale amendments of future land use map in local comprehensive plans. The important characteristics of the data are that amendments were not offered in every year; amendments were only submitted in 1327 of 3618 amendment years that were observed from 1997-2005. Because the decision to submit an amendment package is probably non-random, I estimate Heckman Selection Bias Model where the selection equation uses the physical characteristics to predict which years are observed and the outcome equation uses the institutions and community attribute variables to predict the ratio of large to small scale amendments. Again, in this model, I am trying to explain the ratio of large to small scale amendments as a function of community attributes and institution indicators. In this case, I only observed the ratio for those cities that offered future land use map change amendments whether they are small or large scale. The theoretical reason why some cities did not offer future land use map amendments is that the benefits of preserving environments are closely related to the exiting patterns of physical characteristics. So, if a city faced a certain threshold of their physical characteristics, then it seemed to start to consider their land use policy change (Lubell et al 2005). Thus, in the framework of the sample selection model, I could specify an equation for whether or not a city is at or below the certain thresholds indicated by various physical attribute variables (probit estimation process). Then I could specify the different equation for how many times a city offered amendments of future land use map in terms of large vs. small scale amendments ratio (regression estimation process). In fact, as Heckman (1978) demonstrated, if the processes are related, estimating a model of amendment ratio without first estimating an equation of whether or not a city was on or below the certain threshold of physical attributes, would lead to biased results. The specification follows: 71

where zitγ + ε1it > 0 Selection Equation yit = xit β + ε2it Outcome Equation εt ~ N (0, σ) εt ~ N (0, 1) corr(ε1t, ε2t) When ρ ≠ 0, OLS techniques may yield biased results. Using Heckman selection model provides consistent and efficient estimates for all parameters in this model (Wooldridge, 2002). The basic idea of the sample selection model is that the outcome variable, y, is only observed if some criterion, defined with respect to a variable, z, is met. The common form of the model has two stages. In the first stage, a dichotomous variable, z, determines whether or not y is observed, y being observed only if z=1; in the second stage, I model the expected value of y, conditional on its being observed. My econometric model specification is: Ratio of Large vs. Small = β0 + β1tMayor + β2tDistrict + β3tTurnover + β4tExpenditure + β5tRPC + β6tILA + β7tConstruction + β8tReal Estate + β9tIncome + β10tWhite + β11tHomeownership + β12tDegree + β13tEAR + β14tInteraction + μ1t and I assumed that ratio is observed if γ0 + γ1tPopulation + γ2tPopulation change + γ3tPopulation Density + γ4tWater/Land + γ5tShoreline + μ2 > 0 where ε1t and ε2t have correlation ρ 72

The Rural Policy - College of Social Sciences and International ...
school of social science - Hampshire College
speech and respect - College of Social Sciences and International ...
afPE Trainee/Student Membership - College of Social Sciences and ...
CLEP Social Sciences and History Exam Secrets: CLEP Test Review for the College Level Examination Program
Constitutional Fundamentals - College of Social Sciences and ...
Community, Care and Social Sciences - City of Glasgow College
isipta '11 - College of Humanities and Social Sciences - Carnegie ...
Born out of Crisis - College of Social Sciences and International ...
Dia 1 - Division of Social Sciences
The Electoral Process - Social Sciences - Miami-Dade County ...
The Administration of Justice - College of Social Sciences and ...
Farm Diversification in England 2002 - College of Social Sciences ...
The Inheritance of the Common Law - College of Social Sciences ...
Judicial Activism - College of Social Sciences and International ...
FREEDOM UNDER THE LAW - College of Social Sciences and ...
college of social sciences, health, and education ... - Xavier University
english law the new dimension - College of Social Sciences and ...
The state of farming of Exmoor 2004 - College of Social Sciences ...
Pragmatism and Theory in English Law - College of Social Sciences ...
HAMLYN - College of Social Sciences and International Studies ...
Part 1 - College of Social Sciences and International Studies ...
December - College of Humanities and Social Sciences - California ...
Spring 2012 • - College of Humanities and Social Sciences - Indiana ...
Scholars for the Community - College of Health and Social Sciences ...
[Title page] - College of Social Sciences and International Studies ...
Centre for Kurdish Studies - College of Social Sciences and ...
The Rational Strength of English Law - College of Social Sciences ...
Law and Lawyers in the United States - College of Social Sciences ...
LECTURES - College of Social Sciences and International Studies ...