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5 years ago

COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

this situation, a

this situation, a decisive mayor could have a higher possibility to make a developmental policy choice (Clingermeyer and Feiock 2001). In addition, when they face political turnovers, councils try to avoid the blame for controversial decisions such as proenvironmental land use policy decisions that are highly distributional because they are in nature reelection seeking legislators (Fiorina 1982; McCubbins 1985). This implies that the study of land use policy decision should include the relational nature between executive and legislative institutions as well as the structure of political institutions. The most important finding of this research is the influence of informal institutions. RPC’s roles in the urban land use policy making show how social capital constructed through relational structures influence on the pro-environmental land use policy decision making. As I discussed earlier, informal institutions are a set of norms and conventions that constrain or facilitate certain behaviors (North 1990; Ostrom 1990). These norms and conventions are created and supported as social capital embedded in the relationships individuals establish as members of a social network (Burt 2000). Therefore, embedded norms and conventions can be seen through the social networks in which actors are involved. The result implies that the role of informal institutions should not be ignored when we do a policy research. The most important barrier on using informal institutions is the appropriate measurements of informal institution. In addition, most scholars assume away informal institution as constant and culturally embedded. Social capital theory could be a useful theory that network can be a generator of informal institutions such as norms, values, and conventions that constrain behaviors. As the result indicates, local governments could have informal norms and values constructed by participation in RPC. Finally, this research confirms that local land use policy decision implies the conflicting community interests and responses to the scarce of available physical space. A lot of previous research, as I mentioned in the first chapter, has used community and physical characteristics as minor independent or control variables. This research shows that these variables should be considered as important explanatory variables (Ostrom 1990; Ostrom et al. 1994). Furthermore, as the results of the interaction terms show, the 87

influence of community characteristics is moderated by the institutions. Therefore, the influence of community characteristics should be interactive as well as additive. Conclusion The goal of this research was to build a more comprehensive framework to investigate the influence of political institutions and informal institutions on the local land use policy change in Florida cities. The contributions of this research is to integrate various research streams such as Deterministic, Interest Group, Property Rights, and Political Economy views of land use policy into a framework. Political institutions really do matter in local land use policy in this research. In addition, the most important finding is that political institutions do have mediating role on community interests. Community interests could not work well without better political institutions that can help those interests to be articulated into a policy. As North (1990) and Ostrom (1990) argue, informal institutions also matter. This research contributes how informal institutions role to land use policy. Cities’ linkage to a resource network could provide norms and conventions to make cities stick together as well as provide information. IAD framework is useful tool for policy research. However, its usefulness has been proved limitedly. Another important contribution is that integrating political market framework based upon Institutional Analysis and Development framework increases the possibility for IAD framework to be applied for other policy areas and at the different level. Even though the research provides important findings and implications, it is necessary to point out several limitations of this research to study further. First, we need more in-depth configuration of rules for further studies, especially in political institutions. A lot of scholars have tried to make combination of rules reflecting changing characteristics of local political institutions (Desantis and Renner 2002; Frederickson and Johnson 2001; Feiock et al. forthcoming; Gerber 2006; Lubell et al. 2005 and forthcoming). However, exact combination of political institutions for a certain policy 88