5 years ago

ptJ- ftcE- 67~ ~O1OY-0 - part - usaid

ptJ- ftcE- 67~ ~O1OY-0 - part - usaid

1 IntroductIOn MlOlstry

1 IntroductIOn MlOlstry of Water and IrngatiOn Water Quahty Improvement and ConservatIOn Project SprlOg Momtormg Plan The MImstry of Water and IrngatlOn (Mmistry) IS responsIble at the natIOnal level for adminIstenng water polIcy and managmg water resources m Jordan A major component of the Water QualIty Improvement and ConservatlOn (WQIC) Project IS to assIst the MInIStry m establIshmg a natIOnal water momtonng program for collectmg surface and ground water resources and quality data and mformatlOn The momtormg program also mcludes the mOnItormg of spnngs and hydrometeoroiogic vanables (ramfall and evaporatIOn) ThIS comprehenSIve and mtegrated momtonng program IS essentIal to the Improvement of the Kmgdom's natIonal water resources assessment, management, conservatIOn, and plannIng It also WIll help Identify addItional sources of water (recharge, water harvestmg) and Improve water qualIty ThIS document presents the detmls for the sprmgs mOnItonng program It discusses the objectIves ofthe mOnItonng program, an assessment ofthe eXIstmg program, and the upgrade and extenSIOn of the sprmgs mOnItonng network, types of data to be collected by the program, the uses of the data, speCIfic momtonng statIOns, and the frequency of momtonng and sample collectlOn \ \momtor\m-plans\spnngs\sprmg-wr rvO 3114-97-1c-037 December 1997

21 OvervIew 2 0 Momtormg Program Objectives Ministry ofWater and IrngatlOn Water Quality Improvement and Conservation Project Spnng MOnItoring Plan In Jordan, spnngs hlstoncally have played an Important role m the settlement pattern, where they served as a local source of domestIc water supply and lITIgatIOn In addItIon, thermal spnngs have long been used for theIr therapeutIc value Bemg a convement source of water and a sIgmficant component of the natIOnal water resources, a number of sprmgs have been further developed by the Water Authonty of Jordan (WAJ) to proVIde domestIC water supply for several modem CItIes and towns MeanwhIle, numerous rural commumtles rely on sprmgs for domestIC water supply and farmmg Two thermal spnngs, namely Hammamat Ma'm and Mukhelba have been developed by the MmIstry of Tounsm as resorts for tounsm and therapy Increased demand to satISfy the water supply reqUIrements of a growmg populatIOn, rapId expanSIOn of urban areas, and mdustnahzatlOn, coupled WIth a hIghly vanable ramfall, have resulted m the declme ofthe avaIlable spnng water quantIty and the detenoratIOn ofthe water qualIty of a number of spnngs Several spnngs have dned-up due to over-abstractIOn of the ground water aqUIfer from whIch they emerge Bactenoiogical contammatIOn has affected some of the major domestic water supply spnngs, such as Deek, Tels, QaIrawan, Qantara, Ruselfa, and WadI Es SIr, due to domestIC waste water mfiltratIOn from housmg areas upgradIent ofthese spnngs The decrease of water quantIty and the contammatIOn of spnngs does not only present an addItIOnal stress on the lImIted natIOnal water resources and on the preservatIOn of the envlfonment, It also Imposes addItIOnal finanCIal expenses by requmng more expenSIve water supply alternatIves such as ground water productIOn wells, surface water reservOIrs (storage dams), treatment of brackIsh water, and desaimatlon There IS an urgent need for the conservatIOn and protectIOn ofthIs valuable natIOnal resource (spnngs), whIch has proven to be a convement and cost effectIve water supply, or III the case ofthermal spnngs has potentIal health and tOurISt value \ \momtor\m-olans\sprlngs\spnng-wr rvO 2 3114-97-1c 037 December 1997 (

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