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DataKnowledgeEngJour.. - School of Computing

DataKnowledgeEngJour.. - School of Computing

on Z39.50 began, little

on Z39.50 began, little attention has been given to the end user, the one who is supposed to ultimately benefit from the implementation of the standard.” [19]. 2.3 Our Approach A study conducted by Robertson and his colleagues found that there is very little overall difference in performance between the ‘best match’ search system, INSTRUCT, and the knowledge-based system, TomeSearcher [20]. In order to help current users of library online catalogs search more effectively, the knowledge-based approach is currently the most suitable and feasible approach. The approach as taken in the paper is to build an intermediary system on top of the existing facilities as provided by OPACS. In this way, we can reuse the existing infrastructure to reduce cost, and to take advantage of the domain knowledge present in the structure of online catalog classification systems and the expertise of the librarians in searching catalogs to enhance the search session of the users. The task of interfacing is made simpler with the widespread acceptance and use of the Z39.50 Information Retrieval Protocol. Our expert intermediary system, the E-Referencer, encompasses the expert knowledge of reference librarians. Librarians are trained in formulating queries in boolean logic and reformulating them to obtain sufficient relevant records. Such formulation and reformulation strategies are domain-independent and can be applied to any boolean search systems. The E-Referencer also makes use of the domain knowledge present in the structure of classification scheme of the online catalogs to assist users. In a library OPAC system, the documents and records are classified based on information such as subject heading and call number. This information is fully utilized in helping users maximize their searches. 2.4 Evaluation of E-Referencer and Results The system, E-Referencer version 2.0, has been implemented and is accessible at the URL http://revelation.comp.nus.edu.sg/ERef2.0/. 7

An evaluation of the system was carried out using an earlier version of the E-Referencer on 12 queries that were selected from among those submitted by the university staff and students for literature searches. The queries were selected to cover a wide range of subjects. A complete list and description of the 12 queries is given below: Query No. Topic A96-7 Digital library projects A96-14 Cognitive models of categorization A97-16 Internet commerce B97-1 Making a framework for surveying service quality in academic libraries B97-3 Looking to do a comprehensive literature review of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis D96-2 Software project management D96-16 Decision under uncertainty D97-1 Thermal conductivity of I.C. Packaging D97-2 Fault-Tolerant Multiprocessor Topologies D97-4 Face recognition D97-7 A study on computer literacy and use by teachers in primary schools N97-13 Expert systems in library reference service The Nanyang Technological University (NTU) library system in Singapore was used in the evaluation. Searches were performed by entering the query topics into the traditional search system provided by NTU’s library at http://www.ntu.edu.sg/library/opacs.html, and also on the E-Referencer prototype that we developed. The same set of queries was also given to an expert librarian who performed her own search and reformulation using the NTU library search system. To illustrate the process of searching by the three systems, we shall use one of the queries above: A96- 7 “Digital library projects”. a. NTU Library Search System No record was returned when the query string was entered in this search system. b. E-Referencer The same query string was then entered into the E-Referencer; Initial Search Strategy 1 was carried out as follows: • Stop-words were replaced with ANDs “Digital library projects” 8

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