5 years ago

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

References 1. University

References 1. University of the Philippines at Los Baños (UPLB) Biomass Energy Laboratory - USAID- NREL, Los Baños, Biomass Atlas of the Philippines, 2000 2. Bulatlat, The Philippines alternative weekly magazine, Vol. VII, No. 3, February 2007, 3. Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR), Biofuels Feedstock, accessed March 2008, 4. Capareda, S.C., Overend, R.P., The use of global positioning system (GPS) to estimate point sources of selected biomass residues in the Philippines, 2000 5. Department of Agriculture, Biodiesel Program, accessed April 2008, 6. Department of Agriculture- Bureau of Agricultural Research (DA-BAR) and International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences (ISSAAS), Feasibility Study for an Integrated Anhydrous Alcohol Production Plant Using Sweet Sorghum as Feedstock, Los Baños, 2007, et%20Sorghum.pdf 7. Elauria, J.C., et al., “Assessment of sustainable energy potential of non-plantation biomass resources in the Philippines.” Biomass and Bioenergy, 2005 29: 191-198. 8. International Energy Agency (IEA), Country energy statistics, Oil in the Philippines, 2005. 9. Samson, R., et al., Strategies for Enhancing Biomass Energy Utilization in the Philippines, NREL, REAP – Canada, UPLB, 2001, nt/7%20Strategies%20for.pdf 99

Russia Economy-Wide Biofuels Resource Assessments No comprehensive biomass resource assessment was identified during this survey. The results below are a compilation of government officials’ speeches, foreign agencies’ analyses, and economy-wide statistics. First-Generation Biofuels Potential Ethanol: Russia is one of the world’s largest producer and exporter of grains, particularly wheat, barley, rye, oats, and corn. Russia produced about 82 Mt of grains in 2007 of which it exported 13.6 Mt (predominately wheat). An additional feedstock for ethanol production in Russia is sugar beet molasses. The economy produced about 29 Mt of sugar beet in 2007 and is among the top five producers in the world. If the equivalent of 20% of Russia’s current starch and sugar crop production could be spared for biofuels production as crop yields improve over time, about 5 hm 3 of ethanol or 2.3 Mt gasoline equivalent could be refined per annum, enough to replace 9% of Russia’s current gasoline consumption. Biodiesel: Russia is also a major producer and exporter (mostly to the EU) of vegetable oils from sunflower, rapeseed, and soybean. In 2007, Russia produced about 2.4 Mt of vegetable oils, predominately sunflower, and exported 450,000 tonnes (USDA 2008). If 20% of this vegetable oil production were devoted to biofuels, it would yield 0.5 Mt of biodiesel yearly. This could replace 3.7% of the economy’s current diesel consumption. Second-Generation Biofuels Potential Considering the scale of Russia’s agricultural and forestry industries, a large amount of waste material exists for ethanol production including residues from crop production, logging, wood processing, and pulp and paper mill industries. The Russian Biofuels Association reports that about 100 Mt of crop and wood residues are available in Russia annually (Ablaev 2008), which would yield about 30 hm 3 of ethanol or 14.4 Mt gasoline equivalent. This volume would be sufficient to replace 55% of Russia’s current gasoline consumption. 100

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