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Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Executive Summary Given

Executive Summary Given the steady growth in the demand for transportation fuels and declining oil production within their region, the APEC economies are concerned over energy supply security and are looking for alternative options. APEC members have identified biofuels as one option for diversifying sources of energy for transport. Biomass resource assessment is essential in evaluating the bioenergy potential in a given location, as well as the social, environmental, and economic impacts associated with resources production and use. Biomass resource assessments guide industry development strategies and support decision-making processes. This survey aims to catalog current and planned biomass resource assessments throughout the APEC region, increasing awareness of the resource availability and identifying future needs. It also aims to understand the capability of APEC economies to undertake such assessments. It is intended to deepen and expand on the preliminary resource assessments that were presented in the APEC Biofuels Task Force (BTF) report at the Eight Energy Ministers Meeting (EMM) in Darwin, Australia in May 2007. The results of this survey revealed that most of the APEC economies have assessed their biomass resources at an economy-wide level. Many have completed biomass resource assessments by state/province, and few at a finer geographic level – county/district or local. Additionally, the survey found that all APEC economies have what is necessary to conduct biomass resource assessments - scientific knowledge, tools, and data. However, not all of them have used their full capabilities in existing assessments. Some members have used their advanced capabilities, such as geospatial technologies and simulation modeling to develop detailed analyses of resource potential. For others, the survey identified products that are not direct examples of biomass resource assessments, but they indicate existing capabilities that could be applied to future resource assessment projects, thus enabling them to achieve fine geographic presentation of resources and project potential. A summary of findings is presented below. 1

Economies with Good Resource-Assessment Capabilities and Detailed Resource Assessments: Australia, Canada, Chile, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, the Philippines, Thailand, United States Economies with Good Resource-Assessment Capabilities and Medium Scale (state/province) Resource Assessments: China, New Zealand Economies with Good Resource-Assessment Capabilities and Broad (Economy-Wide) Resource Assessments: Japan, Malaysia, Chinese Taipei, Viet Nam Economies with Good Resource-Assessment Capabilities and Limited or No Resource Assessments: Papua New Guinea, Peru, Russia Economies with Limited Biofuel Resources: Brunei Darussalam, Hong Kong, Singapore With respect to resource potential for ethanol production in the APEC region, the study concluded that a significant amount of second generation feedstock (particularly crop and forest residues) is available. This feedstock could be utilized when the technology for conversion of this material to ethanol becomes cost-effective. The feedstock amounts to about 1,700 million tonnes (Mt), which would yield some 509 hm 3 (1) of ethanol or 245 Mt gasoline equivalent. Such a volume would displace about two-fifths of the region’s current gasoline consumption and onefifth of its crude oil import. Many economies could substitute a substantial volume of their current gasoline consumption with ethanol from second generation feedstock, while others such as China, Thailand, and Viet Nam could substitute their entire consumption. The table below summarizes these findings. Regarding first generation feedstock for ethanol production, the study evaluated the contribution of 20% of the economies’ current starch and sugar crops production. The 20% figure is purely illustrative but would be consistent with trend-based hypotheses regarding the potential for increased agricultural yields to render a fifth of production surplus to food needs over time. If the equivalent of one-fifth of current agricultural production could actually be spared for biofuels production, the first-generation resource potential would amount to some 252 Mt of feedstock and 92 hm 3 of ethanol or 44 Mt of gasoline equivalent. This would be sufficient to displace only 7% of current gasoline consumption and 3.5% of crude oil imports in the region. With respect to resource potential for biodiesel production, only first generation feedstock was considered. Data on second generation feedstock (non-edible crops, such as Jatropha and 1 hm 3 – cubic hectometer or 1,000,000 m 3 or 10 9 L, described in some sources as a GL (Gigaliter) 2

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