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Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

acreages,

acreages, and yield are provided annually at an economy-wide level; and forestry statistics are available by region and province. References 1. Ablaev, A., Russian Biofuels Association, Russia and CIS: Biofuel Resources, presentation at the 5 th APEC Biofuels Task Force in Golden Colorado, USA, October 2008, http://www.biofuels.apec.org/task_force_meeting_2008-10.html 2. Checkbiotech.org, Putin encourages farmers to produce biofuels: Russia as a green energy giant, October 2007, http://www.checkbiotech.org/ 3. FAO Committee on Forestry, Russian Remote Sensing Technologies for Forest Monitoring, March 2007. 4. Federal Forestry Statistics, Accessed May 2008, http://www.rosleshoz.gov.ru/english/regions/woods 5. Fischer, G., S. Prieler, et al. (2005). "Biomass potentials of miscanthus, willow and poplar: results and policy implications for Eastern Europe, Northern and Central Asia." Biomass and Bioenergy 28(2): 119-132. 6. International Energy Agency (IEA), Country energy statistics, Oil in Russia, 2005, http://www.iea.org/Textbase/country/index.asp 7. Ministry of Agriculture, Accessed April 2008, http://www.mcx.ru/ 8. National Statistics Institute, Accessed April 2008, http://www.gks.ru 9. Shvidenko, A., et al. (2007), “Semi-empirical models for assessing biological productivity of Northern Eurasian forests”, Ecological Modeling (204): 163-179. 10. Space Research Institute, Accessed May 2008, http://www.iki.rssi.ru/eng/index.htm 11. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Data Provided by Index Mundi, Accessed March 2008, http://indexmundi.com/ 12. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Foreign Agricultural Service, Biofuels in Russia, GAIN Report, June 2007, http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200706/146291296.pdf 103

Singapore Singapore is a highly urbanized and industrialized economy with a land area of 697 sq km and a population of 4.2 million. The biomass resources available in Singapore are municipal wastes, including wood waste, horticultural waste, food waste, and waste paper. These wastes are used to generate power in waste-to-energy or cogeneration plants. Singapore generated about 5.6 Mt of waste in 2007 (its composition is illustrated in Table 27). Biodiesel feedstock available domestically is waste oil, including recycled and grease trap oils from restaurants and food-processing industries. However, no estimates of their quantity were available at the time this survey took place. Singapore is trying to position itself as a major biofuels processing and trading hub in Asia, rather than a feedstock producer. The economy has a well-established trading market and infrastructure already in place, and its shipping terminals would allow transportation of biofuels to many places throughout the world. It also has proximity to feedstock suppliers (such as Malaysia and Indonesia for palm oil) and emerging high-demand centers (India and China for example). Table 27. Municipal Waste Generation in Singapore, 2007 Source: MEWR, 2008 104

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