5 years ago

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Analyzed feedstocks

Analyzed feedstocks include crop residues (from 18 crops), forest residues, primary mill residues, secondary mill residues (wood scraps and sawdust from woodworking shops), urban wood (MSW wood, utility tree trimming, and construction/demolition wood), and methane emissions from manure management, landfills, and domestic wastewater treatment. It also estimates dedicated energy crops (switchgrass) that could be grown on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands. The study uses GIS to collect, manipulate, analyze, and visualize the resource information, which is based on county-level statistics reported by the USDA, EPA, and the Census Bureau in 2002. The results of this analysis show that an estimated 324 Mt of lignocellulosic biomass (crop and wood residues) could be collected in the United States annually, similarly to the results of the baseline scenario of the “Billion Ton Study”. Assuming a conversion factor of 300 liters per tonne, this could provide 97 hm 3 of ethanol or 47 Mt gasoline equivalent, enough to displace 12.5% of gasoline use or 8.7% of crude oil imports in 2005. Figure 32 shows the amounts of these resources by type, while Figure 33 illustrates their distribution by county. NREL is in the process of updating this analysis with more recent data (2006-2007 statistics) and presenting it at a finer geographic resolution (1km or 250m). Methane from Domestic Wastewater Treatment Urban Wood Waste Secondary Mill Residues Primary Mill Residues Methane from Manure Management Methane from Landfills Forest Residues Switchgrass on CRP lnads Crop Residues 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Million tonnes per year Source: Milbrandt, 2005; Methane emissions are shown in tonnes per year. Crop, forest and other solid residues are shown in dry tonnes per year. Figure 32. Technically Available Biomass Resources in the United States 119

Figure 33. Biomass Resources Available in the United States by County Economic Assessment. An economic biomass resource assessment was completed by ORNL in 1999 and updated in 2000 (Walsh et al. 2000). The assessment contains economy-wide and state-level quantities for agricultural residues (corn and wheat only), forestry residues, primary mill wastes, and urban residues that are available at specific delivered price. These supply curves are in units of US$/dry ton 6 at farm-gate or mill-gate. The estimates are derived from simulation models and analysis of various published data sources. The study found that 322 million dry tons of biomass is available annually at prices below US$50/dry ton, and about 105 million dry tons are available at prices below US$30/dry ton. More resources are available at a higher price due to larger collection radius leading to higher transportation costs. Dedicated Energy Crops. ORNL has done extensive research on dedicated energy crops, including short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) such as hybrid poplars and hybrid willows, and 6 Short ton, equal to 907.18 kg 120

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