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Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Pongam, or from algae)

Pongam, or from algae) was insufficient to provide meaningful results. If 20% of APEC economies' current vegetable oil supply could be spared for biofuel production and if all waste oils and fats could be practically gathered for such production, it would yield about 22 Mt of biodiesel. This would be sufficient to displace about 7% of current petroleum-based diesel consumption and 2% of crude oil imports. Economies with the highest resource availability include China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the United States. It is expected that the resource potential for biodiesel production in APEC economies will increase significantly over the next years with the development of second generation feedstock. Second-generation Resource Availability for Ethanol Production in APEC Economies Note: Possible additional resources from dedicated energy crops are not included. 3

Introduction Biomass energy is derived from plant-based material and residues whereby solar energy has been converted into organic matter. Biomass can be used in a variety of energy-conversion processes to yield power, heat, steam, and fuel. Biomass energy sources include: • agricultural crops and residues; • dedicated energy crops (herbaceous and tree species); • forestry products and residues; • residues and byproducts from food, feed, fiber, wood, and materials processing plants [sawdust from sawmills, black liquor (a byproduct of paper making), cheese whey (a byproduct of cheese-making processes), and animal manure]; • post-consumer residues and wastes, such as fats, greases, oils, construction and demolition wood debris and other urban wood waste, municipal solid wastes and wastewater, and landfill gases. Agricultural and forestry resource production is dependent on adequate sun, rainfall, and nutrient conditions. Depending on the climate and crop-harvesting schedule, there can be seasonal constraints on this type of resource availability and significant annual variability in resource yields at a local level. Adverse environmental conditions (e.g., hail, drought, flooding, insects, and fire) can have significant negative or positive impacts on resource availability from year to year. The concentration of population and activities in urban areas is responsible for the generation of industrial processing residues, municipal solid waste, and other urban discards. These resources may have some seasonal variability, but typically remain at consistent levels in most areas. They also tend to be more spatially concentrated. There are competing uses for biomass resources because of their economic and environmental value for a variety of purposes. As mentioned earlier, biomass material is used to generate power, heat, steam, and for producing transportation fuels. Biomass is also used by the food processing industries, animal feed industry, and the wood products industry, which includes construction and fiber products (paper and derivatives); along with chemical products made by these industries that have diverse applications including detergents, fertilizers, and erosion control products. 4

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