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Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Economy Table 34.

Economy Table 34. Biomass Resource Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies Biomass Resource Assessment Capabilities Remote Sensing/GIS Modeling Field/Paper Survey** Static/Numeric* Dynamic/Simulation Australia X X X X Brunei Darussalam X X N/A X Canada X X X X Chile X X N/A X China X X N/A X Hong Kong, China X X N/A X Indonesia X X N/A X Japan X X X X Korea X X N/A X Malaysia X X N/A X Mexico X X X X New Zealand X X N/A X Papua New Guinea X X N/A X Peru X X N/A X The Philippines X X N/A X Russia X X X X Singapore X X N/A X Chinese Taipei X X N/A X Thailand X X N/A X United States X X X X Viet Nam X X O X * In most cases, applying product to residue ratio; ** Used mostly for collecting agricultural and forestry statistics N/A - Information not available; "~" - Not applicable; "O" - Under development The overall survey findings are presented below. Economies with Good Resource Assessment Capabilities and Detailed Resource Assessments: Australia, Canada, Chile, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, the Philippines, Thailand, United States Economies with Good Resource Assessment Capabilities and Medium Scale (state/province) Resource Assessments: China, New Zealand Economies with Good Resource Assessment Capabilities and Broad (Economy-Wide) Resource Assessments: Japan, Malaysia, Chinese Taipei, Viet Nam Economies with Good Resource Assessment Capabilities and Limited or No Resource Assessments: Papua New Guinea, Peru, Russia Economies with Limited Biofuel Resources: Brunei Darussalam, Hong Kong, Singapore Resource Availability for Ethanol and Potential Gasoline Displacement. Considering the controversy surrounding the use of conventional crops for biofuels production, this project paid particular attention to assessments of alternative (non-food) biomass resources, such as crop and forest residues. The resource availability in the APEC region is estimated at about 1,700 Mt, which would yield 509 hm 3 of ethanol or 245 Mt gasoline equivalent. This volume would 141

eplace 40% of the region’s current gasoline consumption and just below 20% of crude oil import. Many economies could substitute a substantial volume of their current gasoline consumption with ethanol from second generation feedstock, while others such as China, Thailand, and Viet Nam could substitute their entire consumption (Table 36). A note should be made, however, that this estimate doesn’t account for current uses of these resources by other industries such as power/heat generation and bioproducts (plastics, chemicals, etc.). Therefore, more detailed analyses are needed to evaluate the resources that are actually available for biofuels production. With respect to first generation feedstock, the study evaluated the contribution of 20% of the economies’ current starch and sugar crops production. This number is somewhat arbitrary and simply a choice made here. It is reasonable to assume for net importing economies, such as Chile, Japan, Korea, and Chinese Taipei that biofuels production from these crops will not be viable in the near future. However, with advancements in crop development and yield increase, the situation in these economies may change with time. The first generation resource availability in the APEC region is estimated at 252 Mt, equal to about 92 hm 3 of ethanol (44 Mt gasoline equivalent), enough to replace only 7% of APEC’s current gasoline consumption and 3.5% of crude oil import (Table 35). Resource Availability for Biodiesel and Potential Petro-Diesel Displacement. The assessment of biodiesel resource availability was conducted in a similar way to the ethanol assessment. However, data on second generation feedstock (non-edible crops, such as Jatropha and Pongam, or from algae) was insufficient to provide meaningful results. If 20% of economies’ current vegetable oil production, as well as all waste oils and fats, are used for biofuels, it would yield about 21.8 Mt of biodiesel. This amount would replace 6.8% of their current diesel consumption and 1.7% of crude oil import (Table 37). Economies with the highest resource availability include China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the United States. It is expected that the resource potential for biodiesel production in APEC economies will increase significantly over the next years with the development of second generation feedstock. 142

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