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Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Liters/ha 7,000 6,000

Liters/ha 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 Average Biodiesel Production per Hectare of Farmland Oil Palm Coconut (The Rapeseed (EU) Sunflow er (EU) Jatropha (India) Soybean (USA) (Malaysia) Philippines) Crop Source: Worldwatch Institute, 2007 Figure 2. Average Biodiesel Production per Hectare of Farmland Yield by Crop Project Background and Objectives Accounting for about 60% of world energy demand, the APEC region is a net energy importer with its annual consumption exceeding domestic production. Energy imports to APEC economies are projected to increase by approximately 92% between 2000 and 2020 driven by economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization. According to the Asia-Pacific Energy Research Center, APEC's transport energy demand is projected to double from 2002 to 2030, and the transport sector is expected to account for more than 70% of APEC's incremental oildemand growth. Given the steady growth in the demand for transportation fuels and declining oil production within the region, the APEC economies are concerned over supply security and are looking for alternative options. APEC members have identified biofuels as one option for diversifying sources of energy for transport. The Seventh APEC EMM in Gyeongju, Korea, (October 2005) endorsed a three-pronged approach to cope with increasing oil prices and oil-import dependency, including enhanced exploration and development, improved fuel economy in transport, and increased use of alternative fuels including biofuels. The APEC Biofuels Task Force, established in May 2006 at ministers' direction, has a remit to examine issues related to biofuel resources, infrastructure requirements, economics and trade. The task force reported to EMM-8 in Darwin, Australia, in May 2007 that biofuels from a variety of feedstocks are cost-competitive with petroleum-based fuels, that biofuels can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and that biofuels can displace a 7

significant percentage of petroleum use over time, especially as advanced technologies are developed for use of lignocellulosic biomass such as crop and forest residues. This survey is intended to deepen and expand on the preliminary resource assessments that were presented in that report. 2 The project aims to understand what biomass resource assessments have been undertaken in APEC economies, as well as the capability of APEC economies to undertake such assessments. Considering that every economy maintains statistics on grain, sugar, and oil crops they produce - and the controversy surrounding the use of these crops for biofuels production - the project pays particular attention to assessments of alternative (non-food) biomass resources, including lignocellulosic biomass, waste vegetable oil and animal fats, and dedicated energy crops. Many APEC economies have completed biomass resource assessments, but are not aware of the range of resource assessments conducted in other APEC economies. Furthermore, industry developers may be unaware of resource assessments that have been conducted in their area of interest. As interdependency increase among the APEC members, this information is critical to moving forward the biofuels technology in the region. The project aims to catalog current and planned biomass resource assessment products throughout the APEC region, increasing awareness of their availability and identifying future needs. Some APEC economies have extensive capabilities to assess biomass resources – methods, tools, data, and scientific knowledge – but, there is no common understanding of such capabilities in others. The project gives APEC economies a shared view of their capabilities to systematically assess biofuel resources and suggest practical ways to improve these capabilities so that the resource potential can be better understood. 2 APEC BTF Report to the Eight Energy Ministers Meeting, Darwin, Australia, May 2007, http://www.ewg.apec.org/assets/documents/apecinternet/Biofuelsreport%5FEMM820071011104537%2E pdf 8

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