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Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Table

Table of Content Acknowledgments.......................................................................................................................... i Table of Content ........................................................................................................................... ii List of Figures ............................................................................................................................... ii List of Tables................................................................................................................................ iii Preface.......................................................................................................................................... v Abbreviations and Acronyms ....................................................................................................... vi Units of Measure.......................................................................................................................... vi Conversions ................................................................................................................................ vii Glossary of Plant Names ............................................................................................................ vii Executive Summary ......................................................................................................................1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................4 Biomass Resource Assessment Products and Assessment Methodologies ................................9 Australia ......................................................................................................................................14 Brunei Darussalam .....................................................................................................................26 Canada .......................................................................................................................................27 Chile............................................................................................................................................36 China...........................................................................................................................................41 Hong Kong, China.......................................................................................................................51 Indonesia ....................................................................................................................................52 Japan ..........................................................................................................................................58 Korea ..........................................................................................................................................64 Malaysia......................................................................................................................................68 Mexico.........................................................................................................................................72 New Zealand...............................................................................................................................80 Papua New Guinea.....................................................................................................................86 Peru ............................................................................................................................................90 The Philippines ...........................................................................................................................94 Russia .......................................................................................................................................100 Singapore..................................................................................................................................104 Chinese Taipei ..........................................................................................................................106 Thailand ....................................................................................................................................110 United States ............................................................................................................................115 Viet Nam ...................................................................................................................................134 Conclusions ..............................................................................................................................140 List of Figures Figure 1. Average Ethanol Production per Hectare of Farmland Yield by Crop............................6 Figure 2. Average Biodiesel Production per Hectare of Farmland Yield by Crop .........................7 Figure 3. Agricultural Fields Around the World ...........................................................................11 Figure 4. Conceptual Model of GIS.............................................................................................11 Figure 5. The Marginal Agricultural Regions of Australia............................................................18 Figure 6. In-field Biomass Resources in Australia ......................................................................19 Figure 7. Wood Processing Mills in Australia..............................................................................20 Figure 8. Potential Tree Crops for Salinity Hazard Reduction in Australia .................................20 Figure 9. Softwood Mill Residues in Canada ..............................................................................31 Figure 10. Forest Inventory Process in Canada .........................................................................33 ii

Figure 11. Areas of Potential Surplus Wheat Straw in Western Canada....................................34 Figure 12. Distribution of Primary Mill Residues in the Region of Bio-Bio, Chile ........................37 Figure 13. Plantation Forests in the Region of Bio-Bio, Chile.....................................................38 Figure 14. Chile Primary Mill Residues Information System.......................................................39 Figure 15. Rice Straw Production in 2004, Gg per 1 km pixel. ...................................................43 Figure 16. Land Suitable for Sugar cane in Indonesia................................................................52 Figure 17. Land Suitable for Cassava in Indonesia ....................................................................53 Figure 18. Land Suitable for Oil-Palm in Indonesia ....................................................................54 Figure 19. Land Suitable for Jatropha Curcas in Indonesia........................................................55 Figure 20. Areas Suitable for Winter Canola in Korea ................................................................66 Figure 21. Suitable Areas for Biodiesel Feedstock Production in Mexico...................................75 Figure 22. Energy Potential of Crop Residues in Mexico ...........................................................76 Figure 23. WISDOM Analysis Steps ...........................................................................................77 Figure 24. Primary Mill Residues in New Zealand by Region, 2005...........................................83 Figure 25. Estimating Area of Deforestation in Papua New Guinea ...........................................88 Figure 26. Atlas of Agricultural Lands in Peru.............................................................................92 Figure 27. Annual Rice Hull Production by Province in the Philippines, 1999 ............................96 Figure 28. Maps of Crops and Forest Resources in Russia .....................................................102 Figure 29. Map of Timber Volume of National Forest in Chinese Taipei ..................................108 Figure 30. Crops and Crop Residues in Roi-Et Province, Thailand..........................................112 Figure 31. Potential Forest and Agricultural Resources in the United States ...........................118 Figure 32. Technically Available Biomass Resources in the United States..............................119 Figure 33. Biomass Resources Available in the United States by County................................120 Figure 34. Potential Switchgrass Production on CRP Lands....................................................122 Figure 35. United States Bioenergy Assessment Tool .............................................................126 Figure 36. Forest Cover – Viet Nam .........................................................................................138 List of Tables Table 1. Upper Limits to Ethanol Production Using Current Domestic Feedstock Supply Systems in Australia ...................................................................................................................15 Table 2. Upper Limits to Biodiesel Production Using Current Domestic Feedstock Supply Systems in Australia ...................................................................................................................15 Table 3. Upper Limits to Biofuels Production Using Second-generation Feedstock Resources in Australia ......................................................................................................................................17 Table 4. Marginal Lands for the Production of Exotic Biofuel Crops in Australia........................18 Table 5. Potential Biodiesel Production in Canada, 2007-2010.................................................28 Table 6. Biomass from Crop Residues in Canada, 2001............................................................29 Table 7. Forest Residues in Canada ..........................................................................................30 Table 8. Canada Surplus Mill Residues, 2004............................................................................30 Table 9. Summary of Agricultural Residue Assessments in China.............................................44 Table 10. Summary of Forest Biomass Resource Assessments in China..................................44 Table 11. Agricultural and Wood Residues in Indonesia ............................................................55 Table 12. Quantity of Waste Oil and Fats Generated in Japan ..................................................58 Table 13. Annual Agricultural Residue Production in Japan.......................................................59 Table 14. Annual Potential Amount of Woody Biomass in Japan (dry weight) ...........................59 Table 15. Utilization of Biomass Resources in Japan, 2006.......................................................60 Table 16. Agricultural Residues in Korea....................................................................................65 iii

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