5 years ago

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Source: Elmore, A. et

Source: Elmore, A. et al. 2007 Figure 15. Rice Straw Production in 2004, Gg per 1 km pixel. Ethanol: It is difficult to directly compare the different biomass resource assessments completed in China. Despite using similar methodologies to assess crop and forest residues, each study includes different feedstock, which needs to be considered when comparing results. Tables 9-10 summarize agricultural and forest residues estimated in the main biomass resource assessments completed in China. Focusing on the studies completed in 2007, which are among the most comprehensive, Liu, Jiang and others assess the potential from crop residues at 627 Mt per annum, while ERI and DTI assess the potential from forest residues at 161 Mt per annum. Totaling these, we would arrive at a potential as high as 788 Mt of biomass, equivalent to 236 hm 3 of ethanol per year. That could be sufficient to displace 247% of China’s current gasoline use and 90% of China’s crude oil imports. Biodiesel: For long-term development of biodiesel, China is considering woody oil plants, such as jatropha, Chinese pistachio, and Chinese tallow tree. Research on their selection and cultivation just started in recent years. The State Forestry Administration plans to develop 12 million mu (800,000 ha) of oil-bearing tree nuts, principally in Sichuan, Yunan, Guizhou, Chongqing, Hebei, Shaanxi, Anhui, Henan, Hubei, and Jiangxi as part of its 11th five-year plan (2006-2010). It is estimated that these trees will take more than five years to provide a sustainable feedstock supply and they could support as much as 6 Mt of biodiesel production. 43

If this should come to pass, it would amount to an extra potential of some 13% of current diesel consumption and 5% of crude oil imports. Source Table 9. Summary of Agricultural Residue Assessments in China Statistical Year (Li Jingjing 1998) 1995 (Li Junfeng 2005) 1997 (Li Jingjing 2001) 1998 (Liao, Yan et al. 2004) 1999 (Zeng, Ma and Ma 2007) 2002 (Liu, Jiang et al. 2007) 1995-2004 (ERI & DTI 2007) 2006 Crop Residues - straw, stalks, stems and leaves Rice, wheat, corn, soybeans, tubers, oil-bearing crops, cotton, sugar Amount (Mt per year) cane, other miscellaneous 605 Rice, wheat, corn, beans, tubers, sorghum, coarse grains, oil bearing, cotton, sugar cane 639 Rice and wheat straw; rice husk; bagasse 719 Rice, wheat, corn, soybeans, sorghum, cotton, hemp, rapeseed, sunflower, sugar cane 551 Rice, wheat, corn, beans, tubers, oilbearing crops, cotton, hemp, sugar crops, other crops 620 Rice, wheat, corn, beans, tubers, oilbearing crops, cotton, sugar crops, fiber crops, other crops 627 Rice, wheat, corn, legume, potato, cotton, oil-bearing crops 498 Table 10. Summary of Forest Biomass Resource Assessments in China Source Statistical Year Forest Residues Residues from felling areas and Amount (Mt per year) (Li Jingjing 1998) 1995 wood processing factories Mainly logging residues and forest maintenance operations. A small contribution from fuelwood 26 (Li Jingjing 2001) 1998 plantations is also included Forest residues, shrubbery and 110 (Liao, Yan et al. 2004) 1999 orchards* Residues from fuelwood forests, felling remainders, processing remainders, shrubbery, and other forests (economic forests and 104 (ERI & DTI 2007) 2006 bamboo groves) 161 * The study includes residues from the following forest types: Protection forests: forests, trees and bushes mainly aimed at protection, inclusive of water source storage forests, forests for water and soil conservation, wind protection and sand bind forests, forests for farmland and grassland protection, river bank protective belts and road protection belts; Timber stands: forests and trees mainly aimed at timber production, including bamboo groves mainly aimed at bamboo production; Economic forests: trees mainly aimed at the production of fruits, edible oils, soft drinks and ingredients, industrial raw materials, and medicinal materials; Firewood forests: trees mainly aimed at the production of fuels; Forests for special uses: forests and trees mainly aimed at national defense, environmental protection and scientific experiments, inclusive of national defense forests, experimental forests, parent stands, environmental protection forests, scenic beauty forests, trees for sites of historical interests and the forests of natural protection areas. 44

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