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Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Second-Generation

Second-Generation Biofuels Potential Agricultural residues were estimated by Matsumura et al. using statistics from 2000. The study considered residues from all major crops grown in Japan and evaluated their energy potential as shown in Table 13. The agricultural residues identified in the table sum to just under 30 Mt in all. Source: Matsumura, Y., et al. in 2005-B Table 13. Annual Agricultural Residue Production in Japan Forest residues were estimated by Yoshioka et al. using statistics from 1999 (waste paper and black liquor are excluded from the analysis). The study estimated that about 32 Mt of woody residues are available annually in Japan. The different types of residues assessed are shown in Table 14. Table 14. Annual Potential Amount of Woody Biomass in Japan (dry weight) 59

Source: Yoshioka, T., et al. (2005); a Includes thinned trees that are left in forests because the logging costs are higher than the timber price; b Cutting the forests which should have been thinned with the thinning rate of 20%; c Cutting the broad-leaved forests (excluding the forests for logs and bed-logs for shiitake mushroom production) less than 500m from forest roads with the cutting cycle of 30 years.; d Harvesting 30% of the annual amount of 1.0 Tg/yr dry-weight basis; e Harvesting the grass less than a certain distance from forest roads.; f Covering all of the wood industries; g Consisting of demolition woods, wastes from new construction, and old materials of pallets and packages; h Net primary production of the park, roadside, and garden trees; Tg (Teragram) = 1 Megatonne A more up to date analysis on biomass resources is provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF). In addition to estimating the total amount of resources available in Japan, the agency provided the utilized and unutilized portions of these resources as presented in Table 15. Crop and wood residues amount to about 26.3 Mt, but only 15 Mt are not utilized and therefore available for biofuels production in Japan. These surplus residues would yield 4.5 GL of ethanol per year or 2.2 Mt gasoline equivalent, enough to replace 5% of gasoline consumption and 1% of crude oil imports. Table 15. Utilization of Biomass Resources in Japan, 2006 Sewage: 75 mil tonnes Crop Residues: 13 mil tonnes Forest Residues: 3.7 mil tonnes Construction Wood Waste: 4.6 mil tonnes Factory Wood Waste: 5 mil tonnes Food Waste: 22 mil tonnes Animal Waste: 89 mil tonnes Source: Takao Ikeda, 2008, http://www.maff.go.jp/j/biomass/pdf/riyou_jyokyou.pdf To further promote domestic ethanol production, the government hopes to use abandoned arable land. In 2005, Yamamoto et al. estimated the land available for growing dedicated energy crops, but the study does not specify the types of energy crops that could be grown. It concludes that about 400,000 ha of unused arable land are available in Japan for growing energy crops and that another 1.2 million ha could be used for double-cropping with conventional crops. If such land were cultivated, the potential for second-generation biofuels to displace petroleum would be enhanced. 60

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