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Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

References 1.

References 1. International Energy Agency (IEA), Country energy statistics, Oil in Korea, 2005. 2. Korea Forest Research Institute, accessed January 2008, 3. Korea Forest Service, accessed January 2008, 4. Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), accessed January 2008, 5. Korea National Statistical Office (KNSO), accessed January 2008, 6. Korea Rural Economic Institute, accessed January 2008, 7. Lee, Jin-Suk and Park, Soon-Chul, Bioenergy Research Center, KIER, Biomass Potentiality and Utilization in Korea, November 2006 8. Myung-Hee Jo, et al., The Development of Forest Fire Forecasting System using Internet GIS and Satellite Remote Sensing, paper presented at the 21-st Asian Conference on Remote Sensing, Taipei, Chinese Taipei, 2000 9. National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, accessed January 2008, 10. Park, Soon-Chul, et al., KIER, State of art in Utilization of Agricultural Residues and Identification of Priority Biomass Energy projects in the Republic of Korea, 1993, 493 11. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Biofuels Korea, GAIN Report, 2007, 67

Malaysia Economy-Wide Biofuels Resource Assessments First-Generation Biofuels Potential Ethanol: Ethanol from first generation feedstock is currently not considered viable in Malaysia. Grain production in the economy (rice in particular) totals just 1.4 Mt. If 20% of this amount could be made available for biofuel feedstock, for example through increase in productivity over time, the resulting ethanol would amount to just 0.10 hm 3 or 0.048 Mt gasoline equivalent. That would be sufficient to displace 1% of the economy’s current gasoline consumption or 0.6% of its current crude oil imports. Biodiesel: Malaysia concentrates primarily on biodiesel production, particularly from palm oil. Malaysia was the world's largest palm oil producer for many years but was surpassed by Indonesia in 2007. Together, these economies produce about 90% of the world's palm oil. In Malaysia, nearly 11% of the total land area (about 62% of the economy's agricultural land) is devoted to oil palm. Production more than doubled in a little over a decade, from 8 Mt in 1995 to 16 Mt in 2006. Malaysian government policy currently allows only 6 Mt of palm oil to be converted into biodiesel, and a large portion of this production is intended for export. If 20% of Malaysia’s current palm oil production were used for biofuels, it would yield about 3.2 Mt of biodiesel. This amount would replace 64% of the economy’s current diesel consumption and 41% of its crude oil imports. Second-Generation Biofuels Potential Ethanol: Abundant biomass resources are generated from oil palm, paddy, sugar, and wood- processing industries. The National Energy Research Center, Pusat Tenaga Malaysia (PTM), estimated the amount of these resources as illustrated in Table 17 (Rahman 2007). The study states that bagasse is already in use by the sugar mills for power and steam generation, and that wood waste residues are declining due to the use of modern equipment (which generates fewer residues) or are used for the manufacture of charcoal, briquettes and processed heat through gasification. Based on the results presented in Table 17, Malaysia generates more than 68

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