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Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment ... - NREL

from major population

from major population centers. New Zealand produces sufficient tallow (a by-product of the meat industry) to produce 132,000 tonnes of biodiesel per year, which could replace 7.6% of the economy’s current diesel consumption and 2.9% of its crude oil imports. Rapeseed has been targeted as another source of biodiesel in New Zealand. Farmers in South Canterbury are being encouraged to grow the crop, supplying a biodiesel production plant with a target capacity of 70 million liters of biodiesel per year by 2011. The land area required to meet this level of production would be around 50-55,000 ha, in a region that has more than 100,000 ha of arable cropland. Some competition with land for growing food crops and animal grazing is inevitable if the stated levels of production are to be achieved. However, the use of the residual cake from the processed oil seed can be used as a stock food. This largely offsets the loss of grazing area. Second-Generation Biofuels Potential Ethanol: The Scion study estimated that about 5.5 Mt of crop and woody residues are available annually in New Zealand as illustrated in Table 22. These second-generation feedstocks could yield about 1.7 hm 3 of ethanol or 0.8 Mt gasoline equivalent per annum. Such a volume could displace 34% of current gasoline consumption and 18% of crude oil imports. Table 22. Lignocellulosic Biomass Available in New Zealand, 2005-2010 Residues Quantity (dry tonnes) Logging 3,600,000 Primary Mill 800,000 Horticultural Wood 46,000 Municipal Wood 500,000 Crop 500,000 Total 5,446,000 Source: Scion, 2007; Note that logging residue availability will increase over time as the harvest of plantation forest increases in the next 20 years Fast-growing tree species such as eucalyptus, acacia and willow have potential as dedicated energy crops for New Zealand. Currently, these short-rotation forestry (SRF) crops are not commercially used for bioenergy production, with a small area (

harvesting operations in New Zealand in the next 3 years because there is currently no resource to harvest. Biodiesel: Second-generation biodiesel feedstock considered in New Zealand is algae. Algal biomass is not produced commercially; however, existing municipal waste streams offer significant potential and this route is being actively researched by government and private organizations, with research on growth and conversion underway. As shown in Table 23, wastewater and poultry waste could provide as much as 1,787 dry tons of algae per day or 652,000 tonnes per year. This amount would yield about 125,000 – 326,000 tonnes of oil, considering that oil yield is between 0.2 - 0.5 tonne per tonne of algae (NREL 2008). Source: Scion, 2007 Table 23. Algae Potential from Existing Waste Streams in New Zealand Regional Biomass Resource Assessments The Scion study used GIS to assess the lignocellulosic biomass at a regional level. Figure 24 illustrates an example of the series of maps presented in the report, and Table 24 shows the results in a tabular format, for the case of primary mill residues. Other types of residues considered at regional level, for which data are also provided in the study, include logging residues, municipal wood waste, horticultural wood residues, crop residues, fruit, and vegetable residues. 82

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