90 G. Oviedo The Forest Service decided it was necessary to consult with these villagers with the purpose of better understanding their living situation and see to what extent the reforestation project could be modified to accommodate their needs and aspirations. Several problems directly or indirectly connected with the proposed reforestation were identified by the villagers who took part in such consultations. The problem concerning the status of their land tenure rights surfaced as a key conflict. Even though they had been paying their land ownership taxes regularly, rights to use forest products could not be granted to them. This key issue, land tenure rights, was not solved in this reforestation project. Some useful compromises were reached, and an attempt was made to balance the undisputed need for reforestation with the primary need of farmers— land. But clearly it was not possible to move ahead with enough confidence in the project’s success without addressing further the issue of land and forest produce rights. 3. Outline of Tools Tools useful to addressing ownership issues in forest restoration are basically the same that have proven useful in the case of examining land and resource tenure in different conditions. 1. Land and resource mapping: This can be done at any level, to learn about the environmental, economic, and social resources in the community. A variation of mapping is the technique of transects, which focusses on specific areas of a community’s land, for learning about the community’s natural resource base, land forms, and land use, location and size of farms or homesteads, and location and availability of infrastructure and services, and economic activities. 2. The International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO) restoration guidelines are a useful tool addressing ownership issues. To ensure secure land tenure, these guidelines recommend (recommended actions 13 to 16): “13) Clarify and legitimise equitable tenure, access, use and other customary rights in degraded and secondary forests among national and local stakeholders. 14) Strengthen the rights of forest dwellers and indigenous people. 15) Establish a transparent mechanism for conflict resolution where property and access rights are not clear. 16) Provide incentives for stabilizing colonists/ farmers in agricultural frontier zones.” 3. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) or participatory rapid rural appraisal have been described many times in the literature. 124 A methodological illustration of a PRA exercise for forest restoration in Indonesia 125 is as follows: The PRA facilitator team included 14 people: from the government ...,from local NGOs ..., and the authors. ...The main actors were the residents of two of the four hamlets of the village Wangka, which adjoined the proposed reforestation site.They collected the information, analysed the problems, considered the options, and drew up the final reforestation plan. The facilitators supported this by introducing certain techniques to structure the information. They also listened and learned. The entire PRA lasted only three days in the field, from October 12–14, 1993. It was preceded by a one day gathering of the facilitators to exchange information about the PRA techniques to be used and to inform themselves about the village of Wangka. At the start of the PRA, the facilitators introduced themselves and the purpose of their visit and then split into two groups each to cover one of the hamlets. On the first day a map of the village including the proposed reforestation site was made. Then a seasonal calendar, presenting the main events and activities of the community (agricultural, religious, festivals, etc.) was made. On the second day a transect of the respective hamlets and the proposed reforestation site was made. Later in the day a matrix ranking was done to learn about the preferred tree species. On the final day the results of the PRA exercise in both hamlets were combined and presented by the villagers who had been involved in the PRA at a village meeting. This was also attended by representatives from the other two hamlets, the village head (kepala desa), and the head of the Forestry Service of Ngada District. During this meeting, spiced with animated discussions, problems were reviewed 124 Notably, Chambers, 1994; Chambers and Guijt, 1995. 125 Vochten and Mulyana, 1995.
and compromises made. Finally a work programme for implementing the reforestation project was produced. To ensure its future implementation the facilitators met with representatives of the concerned government agencies and presented the proposal to them the next day. 4. FAO’s Socio-economic and Gender Analysis (SEAGA): This is an approach to development based on an analysis of socioeconomic patterns and participatory identification of women’s and men’s priorities. The objective of the SEAGA approach is to close the gaps between what people need and what development delivers. It uses three toolkits: the Development Context Toolkit, for learning about the economic, environmental, social, and institutional patterns that pose supports or constraints for development; the Livelihood Analysis Toolkit, for learning about the flow of activities and resources through which different people make their living; and the Stakeholders’ Priorities for Development Toolkit, for planning development activities based on women’s and men’s priorities. 5. Dachang approaches the analysis of drivers for forest restoration in South China through a logical procedure consisting of three stages: diagnosis, design, and delivery (Tri-D). This procedure is the result of an adaptation of farming system approaches and rapid rural appraisal (RRA) or PRA to the identification of problems and to the design and testing of forestry and agroforestry options. This procedure has been used commonly in communitybased agroforestry research. 6. User rights/stakeholder analysis: A general long-term objective is to gain knowledge about the community, and to appreciate “how to approach and structure a collaboration process.” 126 For WWF, stakeholder analysis “is the process by which the various stakeholders who might have an interest in a conservation initiative are identified. A stakeholder analysis generates information about stakeholders and their interests, the relationships between them, their motivations, and their ability to influence outcomes. There are numerous approaches to stakeholder analysis, ranging from the formal 12. Land Ownership and ForestRestoration 91 to informal, comprehensive to superficial.” A frequent problem of these approaches, however, is a narrow understanding of stakes and differentiation within communities, associated with the absence of consideration of tenure rights. A second conceptual and methodological problem is that often conservation organisations define primary stakeholders as “those who, because of power, authority, responsibilities, or claims over the resources, are central to any conservation initiative,” while in reality primary stakeholders are those with closer dependence and rights on the resources involved. 7. The German agency GTZ proposes four principles to assist decision makers in the process of drafting and enforcing property related legislation. The principles also serve as yardsticks for evaluating existing land tenure systems and reforms, and thus they can be used to assess the forest ownership situation in any given country, and monitoring progress in establishing clear tenure systems. The proposed principles are (1) certainty in law, (2) the rule of law and human rights, (3) political participation of the population in land issues, and (4) definition of property in market economies. Ideally, the development of forest restoration interventions should be preceded and accompanied by a process by which these principles guide an appraisal of the situation of forest ownership, and help identify the critical interventions to follow to ensure success of the initiatives in the long term. 8. The International Institute of Rural Reconstruction 127 offers advice as shown in Box 12.1 on addressing land tenure issues. This is largely applicable to situations where forest restoration is planned, and where forest ownership is an issue requiring specific actions. 4. Future Needs The following areas require further development: • Understanding better the complex issues of rights and how they interact with various factors, such as incentives and policy environ- 126 WWF-US, 2000a,b. 127 International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, 2000.