92 G. Oviedo Box 12.1. Do’s and Don’ts from International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (2000) Do’s Begin with a clear understanding of the local situation and policy context. Use a two-pronged approach for advocacy and lobbying work—at the top with policy makers, and on the ground to demonstrate impact. Start with a clear shared vision with partners at all levels. Have a clear understanding of policies and strategies. Prepare clear guidelines in the local language and share with all stakeholders. Actively share experiences and ideas. Be patient: be prepared to invest a lot of effort and time. Strive to build the technical and managerial capacity of communities. Full coordination with local government officials and line agencies is essential; they ments, is a task that needs to be undertaken on the basis of specific cases of forest restoration. It is therefore recommended that such initiatives include in their plans the ongoing accompaniment of the process by researchers equipped to understand the links between rights and incentives. • Use experience to synthesise guidance in the form of option menus for dealing with tenure issues in different situations. For the moment, most of the experiences of forest restoration offer lessons of mostly local or national value on ownership matters, difficult to generalise and to apply to other situations. An analytical effort of learning more from those lessons and then systematising them for guidance would be valuable, always with the understanding that lesson-based guidance is indicative only, and any mechanistic application of experiences from one place to another needs to be avoided. • Research further on experiences (successful and unsuccessful) of forest restoration under different types of ownership, to better under- can play a key role in monitoring the entire process. Work toward establishing official legislation for user rights to greatly strengthen the process. Help communities understand that a shortterm reduction in fuelwood availability will result from enclosure, and assist them to find ways to deal with this problem. Don’ts Don’t start with sensitive issues (e.g., discussing the problems of the land-tenure situation). Don’t allow conflicts to become too large. Try to resolve them as soon as possible. Don’t impose plans. Don’t monopolize the intervention. Partners should be key players in the process. stand how rights’ systems (including from creation or granting of rights to law enforcement and judicial processes) impact on the results—in the short, medium, and long terms. In undertaking such research, it is fundamental to use a conceptual and methodological framework that is based on the understanding of the complexities of the bundle of forest ownership rights, avoiding for example an exclusive focus on land tenure. References Chambers, R. 1994a. The origins and practice of participatory rural appraisal. World Development 22(7):953–969. Chambers, R. 1994b. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA): analysis of experience. World Development 22(9):1253–1268. Chambers, R. 1994c. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA): challenges, potentials and paradigm. World Development 22(10):1437–1454.
Chambers, R., and Guijt, I. 1995. PRA—Five years later. Where are we now? Forests, Trees and People Newsletter 26/27:4–13. Clogg, J. 1997. Tenure reform for ecologically and socially responsible forest use in British Columbia. A paper submitted to the Faculty of Environmental Studies in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Environmental Studies, York University, North York, Ontario, Canada. Dachang, L. 2001. Tenure and management of nonstate forests in China since 1950: a historical review. Environmental History 6(2):239–263. Dachang, L., ed. 2003. Rehabilitation of Degraded Forests to Improve Livelihoods of Poor Farmers in South China. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction. 2000. Sustainable Agriculture Extension Manual. IIRR, Silang, Cavite, Philippines. Markopoulos, M.D. 1999. The Impacts of Certification on Campesino Forestry Groups in Northern Honduras. Oxford Forestry Institute (OFI), Oxford, UK. Molnar, A., Scherr, S., and Khare, A. 2004. Who conserves the world’s forests? Comunity-driven strategies to protect forests and respect rights. Forest Trends, Ecoagriculture Partners,Washington, DC. Neef, A., and Schwarzmeier, R. 2001. Land Tenure Systems and Rights in Trees and Forests: Interdependencies, Dynamics and the Role of Development Cooperation, Case Studies from Mainland Southeast Asia. GTZ, Division 4500 Rural Development, Eschborn, Germany. Vochten, P., and Mulyana, A. 1995. Reforestation, protection forest and people—finding compromises through PRA, Forests, Trees and People Newsletter, FAO, issues 26/27. White, A., and Martin, A. 2002. Who Owns the World’s Forests? Forest Tenure and Public Forests in Transition. Forest Trends, Washington, DC. World Wildlife Fund USA. 2000a. A Guide to Socioeconomic Assessments for Ecoregion Conservation. WWF–US Ecoregional Conservation Strategies Unit, Washington, DC. World Wildlife USA. 2000b. Stakeholder Collaboration: Building Bridges for Conservation. WWF– 12. Land Ownership and ForestRestoration 93 US Ecoregional Conservation Strategies Unit, Research and Development, Washington, DC. Ziff, B. 1993. Principles of Property Law. Carswell. Scarborough, Canada. Additional Reading Agrawal, A., and Ostrom, E. 1999. Collective action, property rights, and devolution of forest and protected area management. Research paper. S/l. Barton Bray, D., Merino-Perez, L., Negreros Castillo, P., Segura-Warnholtz, G., Torres, J.M., and Vester, H.F.M. 2003. Mexico’s community-managed forests as a global model for sustainable landscapes. Conservation Biology 17(3):672–677. Chambers, R. 1983. Rural Development: Putting the Last First, Longman, London. Chambers, R. 1993. Challenging the Professions. Frontiers for Rural Development. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. Chambers, R. 1996. Whose Reality Counts? Intermediate Technology Publications, London. Chambers, R. 2002. Participatory Workshops: A Sourcebook, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK. Chambers, R., and Leach, M. 1990. Trees as Savings and Security for the Rural Poor. Unasylva 161(41):39–52. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, FAO. 2001. SEAGA—Socio-Economic and Gender Analysis Package. FAO Socio- Economic and Gender Analysis Programme. Gender and Population Division, Sustainable Development Department, Rome. GTZ. 1998. Guiding Principles: Land Tenure in Development Cooperation. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, Abt. 45, Div. 45. Jaramillo, C.F., and Kelly, T. 2000. La deforestación y los derechos de propiedad en América Latina. http://www.imacmexico.org/ev_es.php?ID= 5587_203&ID2=DO_TOPIC. Lamb, D., and Gilmour, D. 2003. Rehabilitation and Restoration of Degraded Forests. IUCN/WWF, Gland, Switzerland.