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Forest Restoration in Landscapes

Forest Restoration in Landscapes

4.2. A Capacity for

4.2. A Capacity for Learning by Doing The above consideration may suggest a need for heavy planning processes, but this should be avoided at all costs. It is much better to start immediately with a few experimental restoration activities on the basis of outcomes of the initial discussions amongst stakeholders. These trials will establish the credibility of outside stakeholders and will permit learning. They will greatly enrich ongoing stakeholder negotiations that should continue throughout the programme.The initial objective should be to build a community of interest groups that can experiment and learn together. A sense of community or “social capital” can really enhance efforts to restore landscapes. Voluntary groups have accomplished some remarkable restoration achievements. People can work together and develop a shared passion for restoring the habitat of a rare animal or the beauty of a disfigured landscape. Such communities will fine-tune their objectives and adapt their programmes as they advance. They will provide an excellent mechanism for setting and updating goals and end points. To get real “buy-in” from diverse interest groups, it is important to start small, provide outside inputs as drip-feeding, not as big cash injections, avoid setting up bureaucracies, and learn and adapt as you progress. 4.3. Tracking Tools for “Landscapes” As restoration programmes unfold it is essential to have feedback mechanisms so that success can be assessed, stakeholders consulted, and activities adapted to reflect changed perspectives. Such tracking tools (or monitoring and evaluation) need to be negotiated at the beginning of the process to ensure that they genuinely track the attributes of the site that people value. Since landscapes are complex and stakeholders’ views often divergent, such tracking tools will inevitably be complicated. 139 139 See penultimate chapter in Sayer and Cambell, 2004. 14. Goals and Targets of Forest Landscape Restoration 105 References Berkes, F., Colding, J., and Folke, C. 2003. Navigating Social-Ecological Systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Dunwiddie, P.W. 1992. On setting goals: from snapshots to movies and beyond. Restoration Management Notes 10(2):116–119. Liu, J., and Taylor, W.W. 2002. Integrating Landscape Ecology into Natural Resource Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Meffe, G.K., and Carroll, C.R. 1994. Ecological Restoration. In: Principles of Conservation Biology, pp. 409–438. Sinamer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA. Sayer, J.A., and Campbell, B. 2004. The Science of Sustainable Development. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Simberloff, D., Farr, J.A., Cox, J., and Mehlman, D.W. 1992. Movement corridors: conservation bargains or poor investments? Conservation Biology 6: 493–504. UNEP-WCMC. 2003. Spatial analysis as a decision support tool for forest landscape restoration. Report to WWF. Walker, L.R., and del Moral, R. 2003. Primary Succession and Ecosystem Rehabilitation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Zuidema, P.A., Sayer, J.A., and Dijkman, W. 1997. Forest fragmentation and biodiversity: the case for intermediate-sized conservation areas. Environmental Conservation 23:290–297. Additional Reading Aide, T.M., Zimmerman, J.K., et al. 2000. Forest regeneration in a chronosequence of tropical abandoned pastures: implications for restoration ecology. Restoration Ecology 8(4): 328–338. Ashton, M.S., Gunatilleke, C.V.S. et al. 2001. Restoration pathways for rainforest in Southwest Sri Lanka: a review of concepts and models. Forest Ecology and Management 154:409–430. Bradshaw, A.D., and Chadwick M.J. 1980. The Restoration of Land:The ecology and reclamation of derelict and degraded land. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK. Buckley, G.P., ed. 1989. Biological Habitat Reconstruction. Belhaven Press, London. Cairns, J., Jr., ed. 1988. Rehabilitating Damaged Ecosystems, vols. 1 and 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

106 J. Sayer Gobster, P.H., and Hull, R.B., eds. 1999. Restoring Nature: Perspectives from the Social Sciences and Humanities. Island Press, Washington, D.C. Holl, K.D., Loik, M.E., et al. 2000. Tropical montane forest restoration in Costa Rica: overcoming barriers to dispersal and establishment. Restoration Ecology 8(4):339–349. IUFRO. 2003. Occasional paper no. 15. Part 1: Science and technology—building the future of the world’s forests. Part II: Planted forests and biodiversity. ISSN 1024-1414X. IUFRO, Vienna, pp 1–50. Jordan, W.R. III, Gilpin, M.E., and Abers, J.D., eds. 1987. Restoration Ecology: A Synthetic Approach to Ecological Research. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Lamb, D. 1998. Large scale ecological restoration of degraded tropical forest lands: the potential role of timber plantations. Restoration Ecology 6(3):271–279. Luken, J.O. 1990. Directing Ecological Succession. Chapman and Hall, London. Nilsen, R., ed. 1991. Helping Nature Heal: An Introduction to Environmental Restoration. A Whole Earth Catalogue, Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, California (Deals with restoration in a U.S. context.) Perrow, M.R., and Davy, A.J. 2002. Handbook or Ecological Restoration, vols. 1 and 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Reiners, W.A., and Driese, K.L. 2003. Propagation of Ecological Influence Through Environmental Space. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Smout, T.C. 2000. Nature Contested; Environmental History in Scotland and Northern England Since 1600. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, UK. Whisenant, S.G. 1999. Repairing Damaged Wildlands—A Process-Oriented, Landscape-Scale Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

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