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Forest Restoration in Landscapes

Forest Restoration in Landscapes

modify the way

modify the way in which funds are used, both to increase natural forest restoration and to ensure that established forests are retained and gain higher value (see detailed case study “Monitoring Forest Landscape Restoration in Vietnam”). 2.4. European Community Throughout the European Union (EU) region, restoration of natural woodlands is hampered in areas of sheep or goat grazing because farmers receive hectare-based payments depending on the area capable of being grazed. 161 To obtain maximum funds, woodlands are opened to grazing, which means that young seedlings fail to establish, resulting in gradually aging forest. In some cases, woodlands that have been fenced with EU funds to encourage regeneration are now being opened up again. It is recognised that the key to facilitating regeneration in many areas is not further grants for tree planting but a removal of perverse incentives (see “Perverse Policy Incentives” and case study “The European Union’s Afforestation Policies and their Real Impact on Forest Restoration”) by changing incentives’ schemes within the Common Agricultural Policy to reduce the reasons for allowing sheep grazing in woodlands. 2.5. Central America The Kyoto protocol of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change allows for governments to offset some of their carbon emissions, or trade other countries’ emissions, through tree planting. Initial proposals focussed largely on the establishment of intensive plantations of exotic species, but research suggests that the long-term carbon sequestration benefits of such plantations are very limited, as they are used mainly for short-term products such as paper and cardboard that are quickly abandoned and break down. Central American governments have been amongst those most active in lobbying for modification of the Kyoto protocol to allow different kinds 17. Policy Interventions for Forest Landscape Restoration 123 161 Joint Nature Conservation Committee, 2002. 162 Miranda et al, 2004. of forest management including natural regeneration and increase of retention of deadwood and humus components. Research suggests that innovative use of carbon markets has aided forest regeneration, with the side benefit of also increasing tourism in these areas. 162 2.6. Lafarge—Quarry Restoration in Kenya Lafarge, based in France, is now the largest quarrying company in the world. The development of its policy toward forest landscape restoration is an example of how small-scale interventions can lead to larger restoration policy initiatives. Lafarge’s forest restoration work started with a series of site-based interventions. The former quarry of the Bamburi cement plant near Mombasa in Kenya was mined for 20 years. In the early 1970s, a rehabilitation programme was started to restore the site as a nature reserve. After a phase of soil formation using the leaf litter of introduced pioneer trees, a large number of tree and other plant species typical of the indigenous coastal forests were also planted. The success of these was observed over time in order to select those species that proved suitable for planting on a larger scale to replace the pioneer trees. In addition to trees of potential economic value (such as Iroko and other indigenous hardwood, which is valuable for local crafts such as carving), endangered species and those that provide habitat or food for indigenous wildlife have also been planted: to date, 422 indigenous plant species have been introduced into the newly created ecosystems of forests, wetlands, and grasslands in Bamburi’s former quarries. Of these 364 have survived, including 30 that are on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species for Kenya. Lafarge also started working with WWF on policy issues, including supporting the organisation’s forest landscape restoration initiative. In April 2002, Bamburi signed a partnership agreement with WWF East Africa, and identified forest landscape restoration as one of the priority partnership activities, including the

124 N. Dudley need to establish a biodiversity monitoring system in partnership with WWF, in order to define guidelines for ecological quarry rehabilitation. In 2001 Lafarge adopted a formal quarry rehabilitation policy with the participation of WWF to spread best practice in terms of quarrying work and relations with local stakeholders. The most important elements of this policy are to plan restoration from the outset and coordinate restoration with quarrying activities. In addition to biodiversity issues, land planning considerations are also taken into account when defining a rehabilitation project in order both to preserve the environment and to generate income for the local communities. In this framework quarry rehabilitation often leads to the creation of wetlands and natural reserves or leisure areas. 3. Outline of Tools Stimulating policy changes requires hard and convincing analysis, including economic analysis, a clear message, and sometimes some targeted and effective advocacy. In cases where financial support is being changed around in favour of more balanced forms of restoration, it may also include economic incentives. Some key tools are as follows: Economic analysis is useful to make the case for restoration or for different kinds of restoration. Examples might include demonstrating that retention of deadwood within managed forests does not entail excessive cost, or showing that natural regeneration is cheaper than replanting. For example, a WWF/World Bank economic analysis convinced the government of Bulgaria to change plans for establishing intensive poplar plantations on islands in the Danube with natural regeneration, 163 and an analysis for Forestry Commission economists in Wales, U.K., persuaded the government agency to use natural regeneration in an area of forest because it proved cheaper than replanting. Economic incentives encourage individuals and groups to make space for restoration, 163 Ecott, 2002. including both official incentive schemes and incentives through the market, such as certification.Targeted incentives have been used very successfully to encourage restoration, for instance through conservation easements to take land out of production, as has occurred widely in the U.S., through direct support for tree planting as successfully implemented on a large scale in parts of Pakistan, or through tax incentives as in several Latin American countries. 164 Case studies show that restoration can work and pay for itself. The case of the restored quarry near Mombasa showed that restoration was not an impossibly expensive task and helped to encourage Lafarge, the company concerned, to introduce a wider policy. Case studies only work, however, if they are carefully prepared and include all the relevant information needed to make policy decisions, and if they reach the attention of the right policy makers. Advocacy entails campaigns or lobbying to encourage change. 165 Targeted lobbying has been successful, for example, in changing some conditions in the Kyoto Protocol to allow greater latitude for natural regeneration. Codes of practice are developed by working with other stakeholders (e.g., industry) to agree and implement them voluntarily and to encourage restoration.The International Tropical Timber Organisation recently completed detailed guidelines for natural regeneration, in association with IUCN and WWF, which provide an example of this approach. 166 As with case studies, however, such codes are only worth the investment in developing them if they are implemented in practice. 4. Future Needs Many of these ideas remain in their infancy. We still require far better understanding of the economic and other benefits of environmental goods and services from restoration in order to make the case, for example, for natural regen- 164 Piskulich, 2001. 165 Byers, 2000. 166 ITTO, 2002.

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