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Forest Restoration in Landscapes

Forest Restoration in Landscapes

eration rather than

eration rather than other land uses or for changes in major funding initiatives such as those under the European Common Agricultural Policy. More generally, major changes are still needed in global trade policy to remove the perverse incentives that currently act against restoration in many areas. References Byers, B. 2000. Understanding and Influencing Behaviour. Biodiversity Support Programme, Washington DC Ecott, T. 2002. Forest Landscape Restoration: Working Examples from Five Ecoregions. WWF, Gland, Switzerland. International Tropical Timber Organisation. 2002. ITTO Guidelines for the Restoration, Management and Rehabilitation of Degraded and Secondary Tropical Forests. ITTO, Yokohama, Japan 17. Policy Interventions for Forest Landscape Restoration 125 Joint Nature Conservation Committee. 2002. Environmental effects of the Common Agricultural Policy and possible mitigation measures. Report to the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Peterborough, UK. Miranda, M., Moreno, M.L., and Porras, I.T. 2004.The social impacts of carbon markets in Costa Rica: the case of the Huetar Norte region. International Institute of Environment and Development, London. Piskulich, Z. 2001. Incentives for the Conservation of Private Lands in Latin America. Biodiversity Support Programme.The Nature Conservancy and USAID, Arlington, Virginia. Rotbergs, U. 1994. Forests and forestry in Latvia. In: Paulenka, J., and Paule, L., eds. Conservation of Forests in Central Europe. Arbora Publishers, Zvolen, Slovakia. Sithole, B. 2000. Where the Power Lies: Multiple Stakeholder Politics Over Natural Resources—A Participatory Methods Guide. Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia. Tarasofsky, R. 1999. Assessing the International Forest Regime. IUCN Environmental Law Centre, Bonn, Germany.

18 Negotiations and Conflict Management Scott Jones and Nigel Dudley Key Points to Retain Forest landscape restoration relies on achieving broad consensus among a variety of stakeholders. However, stakeholders may have very different perceptions of what forest landscapes should provide. This will require a certain amount of negotiation and possible conflict resolution. 1. Background and Explanation of the Issue Forest landscape restoration approaches use the restoration of forest functions as an entry point to identify and build a diversity of social, ecological, and economic benefits at a landscape scale. As such they rely on achieving broad consensus on a range of restoration interventions from a variety of stakeholders, who may have very different perceptions of what forest landscapes should provide. This requires effective negotiation among stakeholders whose negotiation skills, interests, needs, and power are often markedly different. However, the success of forest landscape restoration approaches often hinges on how successfully such negotiations are conducted. The principles of forest landscape restoration, therefore, aim at restoring forests to provide 126 multiple social and environmental benefits through processes that involve stakeholder participation. The achievement of these ambitious goals relies on finding a successful passage through an array of practical challenges. These include the implications of current and future land tenure, competing land uses, and reaching a balance between different management regimes. Success depends on the ability of those initiating or guiding a forest landscape restoration project to manage the tensions and conflicts that will arise on the way. This, in turn, implies a certain amount of knowledge about how to identify, analyse, and manage conflict, retaining the varied, useful perspectives that are helpfully expressed through conflict, while resolving or mitigating those aspects of conflict that are dangerous or prevent project success. 1.1. Types of Conflict There are two aspects that characterise conflicts: their openness and the type of conflict. Conflict can be concealed or open167 ; either can cause problems in developing successful landscape-scale approaches to restoration: • Open conflicts: everyone can see them and knows about them. • Hidden conflicts: some people can see them and know about them, but hide them from others (particularly outsiders), perhaps because of cultural or social reasons (e.g., 167 DFID, 2002a; Fisher et al, 2000.

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