Principles Tools Experience many gender-related conflicts) or because disputes may be embarrassing to the community (e.g., disagreements between young people and elders). • Latent conflicts: these come to the surface when something changes the status quo. For example, if a restoration project brings benefits (money, power, influence, equipment), their distribution can create conflicts that were not there before the project arrived. There are also different types of conflict. It is important to understand which type of conflict one is facing since each needs addressing in a different way. • Interpersonal conflicts: between two or more people relating to personality differences • Conflicts of interest: someone wants something that another has (e.g., money, power, land, influence, inheritance) • Conflicts about process: how different people, groups, and organisations solve problems (e.g., legal, customary, institutional) • Structural conflicts: the most deep-seated type relating to major differences that are hard to address (e.g., unequal social structures, unfair legal systems, economic power biased toward certain stakeholders, or differences in deep-seated values, such as cultural or religious) Sometimes one type of conflict, perhaps unthinkingly, is disguised as another, for instance a personality clash may be presented as an issue of process. 18. Negotiations and Conflict Management 127 Conflict analysis Designing a process (plan) Conflict management Capacity building Process management 1.2. Elements in a Conflict Situation Rapport Communication Perceptions Figure 18.1. Building blocks in the conflict management process: elements in a conflict situation. Managing conflict is not a straightforward process. Rather, there are a number of key building blocks in a conflict management process that interrelate and must often be undertaken in parallel (Figure 18.1168 ): • Conflict analysis is about understanding who the different stakeholders are, what are their strengths, fears, needs, and interests, and how they perceive or understand the conflict(s). • Capacity-building is about helping people to manage conflict. It may be required at any time. For example, it may take place prior to negotiations because some stakeholders need to develop negotiation skills. It may take place before agreements are signed because different groups like to have agreements in different forms; it is important that all groups have the capacity to understand each other’s approaches to problem solving and reaching agreements. Capacity-building often takes the form of training (e.g., in negotiations or “people” skills), but sometimes other resources are needed. • Designing a process is about planning who to bring together, where, when, and how. The most effective conflict management processes are usually flexible, iterative, and capable of keeping stakeholders on board as events, issues, and even the attitudes of the conflicting parties change. 168 Modified from Warner and Jones, 1998.
128 S. Jones and N. Dudley Explore possibilities for reframing power, needs, options Test agreement(s) for achievability— [reality testing] Try to achieve mutual gains—aim to achieve early agreement on something Allow sufficient time for analysis given your resources Widen options before narrowing to solutions • Process management is about how to build and maintain effective ways of working with the parties, to retain flexibility and patience, while still keeping focussed on outcomes and working toward success on the criteria that stakeholders have agreed to, for example, how to convene an effective meeting with clear goals, or how to monitor an agreement. Achieving these things requires adhering to certain principles (e.g., mutual respect, being accountable, recognising the potential and Acknowledge and embrace different perceptions Consensus- Building Principles Focus on underlying needs, not initial demands Accommodate cultural differences Understand and try to equalize power Figure 18.2. Principles for successful negotiation. 168a Seek and engage with diversity Build and maintain effective communications Develop and manage good rapport limits of your influence, see Figure 18.2), using certain tools (e.g., stakeholder and gender analysis), and applying key experience (e.g., with similar projects or with these people in other projects). They also require key people skills, among the most important of which are maintaining good rapport and effective communications, and effectively engaging with the multiple perspectives. 169 168a Modified from Warner, 2001. 169 Jones, 1998.