5 years ago

Forest Restoration in Landscapes

Forest Restoration in Landscapes

18. Negotiations and

18. Negotiations and Conflict Management 131 Box 18.2. Some Principles and Skills Involved in Negotiating Forest Landscape Restoration (See also Figure 18.2) Be clear on what everyone means by the issue and the problems, opportunities, and people/agencies involved Adopt a positive attitude, for example, being clear that conflicts are not just problems but also opportunities Have in mind some kind of a route map, some idea about ways in which key stakeholders wish to proceed Address role, responsibility, and legitimacy issues, including the limitations (boundaries) to your negotiating authority Build and maintain effective rapport and relationships Active listening Identify high-quality, relevant questions Embrace multiple perspectives and perceptions Build on what is already there (including cultural aspects of conflict management and problem solving) Consider process (law, custom, institutional) as well as structural conflicts and conflicts of interest Keep in mind options for withdrawing or not getting involved further Keep an eye on capacity building for self-development and organisational development Separate and focus on the problem and not the personalities Separate and focus on underlying needs and motivations, not initial positions Know what you would do if the negotiations did not work, perhaps because the other party broke the ground rules or tried to use unacceptable force (this is also called knowing your BATNA: best alternative to a negotiated agreement; see Box 18.1) Seek, explore, and emphasise common ground Put your case in terms of their needs, not just why you want something The more you know about the other’s position, the better able you are to find consensus-based solutions; do some homework to find out their situation Maintain a creative, positive approach Use paraphrasing and other communication skills to understand and describe the other’s points Create a positive environment for the negotiation (think about the physical setting, the comfort and acceptability of the place, the time, and the way you manage yourself) Look for an early, small successes (reach agreement on something early, even if that is just the venue, then emphasise that agreement; common ground—start small) Make sure your preparations are as complete and accurate as possible.Write down what you have done to prepare. Check with a colleague. Check with another colleague. Seek constructive feedback. Keep in mind: 1. The process and conflict management style 2. Your goals and boundaries (your limit or bottom line) 3. Opportunities to address power inequalities 4. Your colleagues’ needs, expectations, and ability to act as resources 5. Your personal values and principles 6. Time and space for reframing issues 7. Capacity building needs that may emerge 8. The needs for more analysis that may emerge Multiple perspectives and perceptions can be useful. A diversity of opinion helps us shed light on the issue from different directions.Treat difference and diversity not as an emotional trigger to fight against, but as a moment of opportunity to engage with.

132 S. Jones and N. Dudley knowledge, skills, and a positive attitude. It is helpful to look at each of these things in relation to three phases in negotiations: • Preparation—what we need to do before the negotiation • Negotiation itself—could take place in one meeting or over several meetings • Follow-up—what we need to do after the negotiation is over and agreement has been reached A negotiation can happen at any time. Entering a community or a government official’s office may require a negotiation.The gatekeeper may want to know some details before people just walk in, including when a group or agency will arrive, how long it will stay, under whose authority, with what level of formality, and to do what. Having agreed to who are the stakeholders who need to be involved, a process of negotiations in forest landscape restoration will probably look something like this: 1. Each group works to understand the other group’s initial positions relating to the landscape. 2. Each group then asks high-quality questions and uses listening skills to try to understand underlying needs, fears, and motivations in identifying restoration interventions. 3. The parties try to deploy creative thinking and other skills to generate a wide range of options that could address these needs, fears, and motivations. 4. This range of options is prioritised and brought together in ways that allow everyone to gain as much as possible. 5. An agreement is sought, to which everyone can commit. 6. That agreement is tested against the real world to make sure it is achievable. 7. The parties agree on the next steps, on how to manage the restoration interventions and the resources that are needed, and on ways of monitoring the agreements and commitments they have made. 3.2. Analytical Tools A large number of analytical tools and skills that are used in participatory forest manage- ment, project management, and development can be brought to bear in conflict management. Examples include participatory appraisal, 170 a variety of approaches for measuring and analysing sustainability, 171 and more general tools that help to frame and guide further analysis, such as STEEP, SWOT, problem trees, and forcefield analyses. 172 The key is to use those that are relevant for different stakeholders and that help to bring understanding and wider perspectives on the issues. Key analytical tools, though, include the following: • Stakeholder analysis173 • Conflict mapping and situation analysis174 • Tools that address power relations, culture, and gender175 A variety of analytical tools can feed into a summary conflict analysis. Conflict analysis can be done in the office (alone or in a group) or in the field (for example, in participatory exercises) or in combination. Successful analyses are clear about who undertook the analysis, when, and why, and make it clear how different groups were involved in verifying and agreeing to analysis summaries from different stakeholder perspectives. Of course, as events change and time moves on, analyses need to be revisited. This is especially important when new stakeholders enter the picture or established stakeholders leave, and when critical events change key stakeholders’ circumstances. Analysis helps to identify the domain of conflict (e.g., domestic, social, cultural, economic, or political) and whether conflict is nested within several domains. Conflict mapping with key individuals or stakeholder groups, can help to summarise information and show up major differences and possible ways forward. One example is given as a matrix (Fig. 18.3). However, flow charts,Venn diagrams, and other visually powerful mapping tools can help 170 Jackson and Ingles, 1998; 171 Bell and Morse, 2003; Dalal-Clayton and Bass, 2002. 172 Pretty et al, 1995. 173 DFID, 2002b, section 2; Ramirez, 1999; Richards et al, 2003. 174 DFID, 2002b, section 3; Fisher et al, 2000; Wehr, 1998. 175 Fisher et al, 2000.

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