and improving creative thinking skills, in organisations as well as other groups. 179 4. Future Needs Most conservation organisations, forestry departments, and companies have only very limited knowledge about conflict resolution. Capacity building for conflict management and negotiation within conservation and forestry organisations is a critical need in terms of building the ability to work across broad scales and mainstream conservation. Most of the tools and expertise are known but have been applied in only a very limited way within the field of natural resource management. References Bartram, S., and Gibson, B. 1997. Training Needs Analysis. Gower Publishing, London. Bell, S., and Morse, S. 2003. Measuring Sustainability. Earthscan, London. Dalal-Clayton, B., and Bass, S. 2002. Sustainable Development Strategies. OECD, Earthscan and UNDP. Earthscan Publications, London. Department for International Development (DFID). 2002a. Conducting conflict assessments: guidance notes, DFID. Government of the United Kingdom, http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/conflic tassessmentguidance.pdf. Department for International Development (DFID). 2002b. Tools for development. DFID, Government of the United Kingdom. http://www. dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/toolsfordevelopment.pdf. 179 Hofstede, 1994. 18. Negotiations and Conflict Management 135 FAO, 2002. Fisher, S., et al. 2000. Working with Conflict. Zed Books, London. Fisher, R., and Ertel, D. 1995. Getting Reading to Negotiate, Penguin Books, London. Hofstede, G. 1994. Cultures and Organisations: Software of the Mind—The Successful Strategist Series. Harper Collins, London. Jackson, W.J., and Ingles, A.W. 1998. Participatory Techniques for Community Forestry. World Wide Fund for Nature, IUCN-World Conservation Union and Australian Agency for International Development, Gland, Switzerland. Jones, P.S. 1998. Conflicts about Natural Resources. Footsteps No. 36 (September). Tearfund, Teddington, London. Lewicki, R.J., Gray, B., and Elliott, M. 2003. Making Sense of Intractable Environmental Conflicts: Concepts and Cases. Island Press, Covelo and Washington, DC. Pretty, J.N., Gujit, I., Thompson, J., and Scoones, I. 1995. Participatory Learning and Action: A Trainer’s Guide. International Institute for Environment and Development, London. Ramirez, R. 1999. Stakeholder analysis and conflict management. In: Buckles, D. ed. Cultivating Peace—Conflict and Collaboration in Natural Resources Management. World Bank, Washington, DC. Richards, M., Davies, J., and Yaron, G. 2003. Stakeholder Incentives in Participatory Forest Management. ITDG Publishing, London. Warner, M., and Jones, P.S. 1998. Conflict resolution in community based natural resources management. Overseas Development Institute Policy Paper (No. 35), August. Warner, M. 2001. Complex Problems, Negotiated Solutions. ITDG Publishing, London. Wehr, P. 1998. International on-line training programme on intractable conflict. http://www.colorado.edu/ conflict/peace/problem/cemerge.htm.
19 Practical Interventions that Will Support Restorationin Broad-Scale Conservation Based on WWF Experiences Stephanie Mansourian Key Points to Retain Urgent conservation or livelihood problems may necessitate short-term, strategic interventions even in the absence of a longerterm programme. A series of 10 different tactical interventions are suggested, ranging from threat removal to positive economic incentives. 1. Background and Explanation of the Issue In the face of increased threat of massive species’ extinction, with estimates that more than half of the world’s threatened species live on less than 1.4 percent of the earth, 180 it may be important to consider a range of practical and tactical interventions to begin to reverse this rapid degradation, particularly in highly threatened areas that are extremely rich in biodiversity. There are still surprisingly few examples of successful forest restoration from a conservation perspective, particularly at a large scale. 181 Elsewhere, we have discussed the importance of carrying out restoration as a component of 180 Brooks et al, 2002. 181 TNC, 2002. 136 larger conservation and development programmes, but in some cases there may also be opportunities to carry out useful restoration more opportunistically.This chapter is intended to highlight some tactical interventions that could be undertaken if framed within a forest landscape restoration process or approach. Planning at a landscape or ecoregional scale is difficult enough, but actually intervening at that scale is generally harder still. In a forest landscape restoration context, activities such as planning, engagement, priority setting, negotiation, trade-offs, modelling, etc. are usually all best carried out at a landscape scale. However, with the exception of some policy interventions, most of the practical restoration actions will take place at sites within the landscape or ecoregion. Although planning processes are often lengthy, some actions can often start in anticipation of the overall long-term strategy to restore forest landscapes; generally some responses will be clear and uncontroversial and these can often be initiated even whilst more difficult issues remain unresolved. This chapter discusses the types of specific and punctual interventions related to restoration that a field programme may consider undertaking. Some of these would be expected to arise within a longer term strategy to restore ecological and social forest functions but may also come in advance of such a strategy due to lack of funds for the overall process, lack of buy-in from stakeholders, and other issues relating to expediency or urgency. When a species is facing immediate threats of extinc-