5 years ago

Forest Restoration in Landscapes

Forest Restoration in Landscapes


invited to help redesign the university’s forestry curriculum to include specific restoration elements. The sorts of training that can be provided include the following: • Nursery design and development: Training can be provided to farmers and other community members on managing tree nurseries. This may also include elements of seed recognition and collection. • Agroforestry techniques: When agricultural practices are an issue, training farmers in techniques such as agroforestry that are more compatible with some form of natural forest cover can be a useful approach within a forest landscape restoration initiative. • Training can be provided in alternative income-generating activities (see below) to reduce the impact people are having on forests while offering them a realistic livelihood alternative. • Improved grazing practices may sometimes be a simple way of returning areas of land to natural forest. • In relevant cases, training may involve better fire management practices (to remove fire risks, to control them, or to undertake prescribed burns). 3.9. Forest-Friendly Economic Activities (Microenterprise Development) In many countries the pressure on forests, the conversion of forests, or the hindering of natural regeneration is driven by the poorest people, who rely on forests for their immediate needs but are under too much short-term pressure to invest in long-term restoration strategies. One way of addressing this may be by providing training in improved practices that will help both sustain their own resource base and reduce forest degradation, or, on the other hand, by offering new economic activities that reduce their detrimental impact on forests. For a conservation organisation, this will generally require partnering with development organisations with expertise in, for example, microenterprise development. 19. Practical Interventions that Will Support Restoration 141 For example, in Madagascar, the main threat to forests is slash-and-burn agriculture with short fallow periods. In a country with such high poverty levels, the only way to reduce this pressure on forests is to provide alternative livelihood options for those local communities. A number of successful microenterprise development programmes have been attempted by entities such as USAID (US Agency for International Development), 184 the U.N., and CARE. These programmes may not have been explicitly intended to reduce pressure on forests, but in partnering with conservation organisations two objectives could be reached: improving livelihoods while ensuring that forests are protected and, where appropriate, restored. When promoting such alternative livelihood options, it is important to undertake suitable feasibility and market studies, and not engage people, for instance, in honey production if there is no market for it. 3.10. Paying Communities for Better Practices It may sometimes be necessary or appropriate to use project money to compensate communities for the loss they suffer by accepting restoration on land they own or use. This could be a first activity before developing alternative livelihood options. It can also be a way of engaging communities that may not otherwise be very receptive to the project. One risk with this approach is that of getting communities accustomed to compensation and expecting it over the long term. This clearly needs to be a short-term activity with a clear plan to move into other activities. 4. Future Needs In an ideal world, a comprehensive restoration programme would be well thought out, would address a range of stakeholders’ priorities, would be implemented at various scales (national, local, regional), and would be given the necessary resources and time to succeed. 184 ARD-RAISE Consortium, 2002.

142 S. Mansourian Unfortunately, this is often not the case, and therefore punctual interventions like those listed above may become necessary first actions. All of the actions listed above would benefit from being integrated into large programmes that aim to restore forest functions within landscapes for the benefit of people and biodiversity. One future need, therefore, is for decision makers and donors to allocate sufficient resources to allow for the implementation of the large-scale programmes that are required to achieve the restoration of forest functions in many regions of the world. Another need is for more creative partnerships between public, private, and civil society organisations, as well as between development and conservation organisations to achieve the ambitious aims of restoring forest functions in landscapes. References ARD-RAISE Consortium. 2002. Agribusiness and forest industry assessment. Report submitted to USAID–Madagascar, November 18. Brooks, T.M., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., et al. 2002. Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity. Conservation Biology 16 (4):909–923. Ecott, T. 2002. Forest Landscape Restoration: Working Examples from Five Ecoregions. WWF, Gland, Switzerland. Sheng, F. 1993. Integrating Economic Development with Conservation. WWF International, Gland, Switzerland. The Nature Conservancy (TNC). 2002. Geography of Hope Update: When and Where to Consider Restoration. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia. Additional Reading Lamb, D., and Gilmour, D. 2003. Rehabilitation and Restoration of Degraded Forests. IUCN and WWF, Gland, Switzerland. Mansourian, S., Davison, G., and Sayer, J. 2002. Bringing back the forests: by whom and for whom? In: Sim, H.C., Appanah, S., and Durst, P.B., eds. Bringing Back the Forests: Policies and Practices for Degraded Lands and Forests. Proceedings of an International Conference, 7–10 October 2002. FAO, Thailand, 2003. Ormerod, S.J. 2003. Restoration in applied ecology: editor’s introduction. Journal of Applied Ecology 40:44–50. Sayer, J., Elliott, C., and Maginnis, S. 2003. Protect, manage and restore: conserving forests in multifunctional landscapes. Paper prepared for the World Forestry Congress, Quebec, Canada.

Forest Landscape Restoration - IUCN