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5 years ago

Forest Restoration in Landscapes

Forest Restoration in Landscapes

5.

5. Linkages and Connectivity • Understanding the role of corridors and ecological stepping stones and in particular how to make these most effective, conditions in which they will and will not work, challenges, problems to avoid, information about distances species will disperse over unsuitable habitat, use of corridors by invasive or pest species • Developing greater experience on issues related to connectivity of forests across landscapes; for example, connectivity can be at least obtained through the use of lines or even isolated trees in the landscape, serving to buffer plantation areas, changing the “shape” of the plantation, etc. 6. Fires • Increasing understanding of natural fire regimes including the forest structure needed to avoid high-intensity destructive fires and the associated management implications • Developing cost-effective fire control measures with minimal biodiversity impacts 7. Invasive Species • Improving methods for the control of invasive species • Developing a comprehensive solution for dealing with invasive alien species as part of forest restoration 8. Artificial and Natural Disturbance Appendix 1 425 • Drawing up codes of practice and perhaps principles for artificial disturbance • Developing and disseminating methods of enriching degraded or regrowth forests • Developing enrichment planting guidelines that are species- and site-specific 9. Water and Forests • Developing tools and methodologies for calculating net gains of different restoration and management actions from the perspective of water supply • Improving understanding of watershed-scale processes 10. Links Between Site Conditions and Species • Clarifying species-site relationships—there is often surprisingly little knowledge of the distribution patterns and site requirements of most tropical tree species • Quantifying better the influence of site conditions (precisely for each parameter) on species’ development and growth and on communities’ composition, and diversity, along with a better comprehension of the potential trajectories of the communities (i.e., rupture thresholds, lag of time response).

Index A abandoned land see land abandonment access controls, 211 access rights, clarification, 235 adaptive management approach, 417 ADPM, 335 advocacy, 124, 139 afforestation, definition, 10 agriculture, shifting, 274 AGROCANP, 409 agroforestry, 247, 274–279, 406, 407–409 “agriculture in stages”, 410 definition, 275 future needs, 279 overcoming impediments, 296 techniques, 141 tools, 278–279 Al Shouf Cedar Reserve, Lebanon, 187 Albatera, Spain, forest restoration, 316–317 Algeria, reforestation, 317–318 alley cropping, 275, 277–278 Altai Sayan, Russia, 122 Alternative Association of Producers (APA), 409 Amazon, coca in, 234 amenity, emphasis on, 104 Amur honeysuckle, 388 ancient woodland, definition, 112 Andresito, Argentina, 237, 253 animal dispersal, 357 anthropogenic disturbance control, 251–252 Appalachian region, 264 Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica, 251–252 Argentina, Atlantic forest restoration, 75, 237–238, 253 “artificial negative selection”, 286 Asian Development Bank (ADB), 139 Australia exclusion zones, 211 fire control, 272 linkage corridors, 292 mining reclamation, 372–373 monoculture plantations, 292–293 Tasmania, southern forests, 205 avalanche control, 104 B Bai Bang Pulp and Paper Mill, Vietnam, 409 Bandipur National Park, India, 111 barrier elimination, 254 BATNA, 129 bauxite mines, forest restoration, 292, 372–373 beetles, saproxylic, 186, 203 beneficial use laws, 79 Bialowieza forest, Poland, 204 bilateral donors, 139, 163 biodiversity conservation goals, 42 payments for, 167, 169–170 plantation management in, 382 in even-aged plantations see even-aged plantations forest loss impact, 17–21 modelling tools, 104 reestablishment, 195, 247–248 reservoirs, 360 survey methods, 19–20 Biodiversity Conservation Network, 163 biological targets, 116–117 biological values, in plantations, 394–395 biomass, incorporation in soil, 351 bird species, habitat restoration for, 200 Bitterroot National Park, USA, 336 Borneo forest regeneration, 137, 187, 310 log landings rehabilitation, 364 rubber, 276 Brazil Atlantic forest forest loss, 19 tree cover restoration, 252 commercial plantations, 380–381 forest rehabilitation, 405, 406, 409–410 Plantar project, 172–173 restoration after mining, 292, 373 bridging substitutes, 206 British Columbia, carbon sequestration payments, 168–169 buffer strips, 246 buffer zones, 35–36, 309–310 Bulgaria, forest policy change, 137–138 burning, prescribed, 186–187, 272 427

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