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Forest Restoration in Landscapes

Forest Restoration in Landscapes

428 Index C C-Plan, 119

428 Index C C-Plan, 119 California, giant forest restoration, 335 campaigning, 139 Canada carbon sequestration payments, 168–169 eastern, deciduous hardwood restoration, 242–243 Pacific Northwest forests, 205 capacity building, 127, 133, 421 carbon knowledge projects, 171–175 carbon market, 172, 174, 175 carbon sequestration, 32, 382 estimation, 174 payments for, 167, 168–169 carbon sinks, 171 Carrifran, 9 case studies, as policy change stimulus, 124 CATIE, 263, 264, 266 Catskill State Park, USA, 230 cattle grazing, 254 CEAM Foundation, 154 Cebu, Philippines, 407–408 CEDISA, 408 CELOS system, 362 Central America and Kyoto protocol modification, 123 shade-grown coffee, 276–277 Central Truong Son initiative, Vietnam, 69, 153–154, 157–158 Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), 405 Co-learn tools, 411 institutional agreement indicators, 412 Review of Forest Rehabilitation Initiatives, 405 see also rehabilitation, sustainable socioeconomic impact indicators, 412 Centre for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS), 111 change drivers, 103 Chesapeake Bay watershed, USA, 309–310 Chiapas, Mexico, 358 Chile, temperate forest restoration, 324–325 China forest ownership policy, 86 forest rehabilitation, 405, 406, 407, 410–411 Grain-for-Green programme, 80 mobile dune stabilisation, 352–353 restoration benefits and incentives, 87–88 restoration drivers, 91 slope stabilisation, 352 CIFOR see Centre for International Forestry Research Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), 172, 174 climate change and invasive alien species, 349 link to CO 2 emissions, 171 research needs, 424 restoration in face of, 31–36 threat to biodiversity, 31 Climate, Community, and Biodiversity (CCB) standards, 174 closures, 254 cloud forest, 229, 303–305 CO 2Fix, 174 coal mines, forest restoration, 373–374 cocoa, 276 codes of practice, 124 coffee, shade-grown, 276–277 Colombia, biodiversity conservation payments, 169 commercial plantations, in forest landscape restoration, 379–382 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), forestry-related incentives, 80, 82–83 communications about forest landscape restoration, 176–180 messages for specific audiences, 177 after storms, 343 effective, 133–134 proactive, 179 rapid-response, 179–180 tools, 139 via Web sites, 180 communities, compensating, 141 community-based cost-benefit analysis, 28 community-based fire management (CBFiM), 337 community-based forest management (CBFM), 407–408 company practices, changing, 139 conceptual modelling, 76 conflict management, 126–135 analytical tools, 132–133 building blocks, 127 capacity building, 127, 133, 421 creative thinking, 134 effective communications, 133–134 examples, 130 types of conflict, 126–127 see also negotiation connectivity in plantation biodiversity restoration, 389 research needs, 425 strategy, 47 see also fragmentation consensus building workshops, 62 conservation by design, 55 landscapes see landscape(s) Conservation Measures Partnership (CMP), 147 conservationists, training, 422 cork oak forests, 217–218 Coronado National Forest, Arizona, USA, 210 Corrimony, Scotland, UK, 242 cost-benefit analyses, 418 alluvial forests, 311–312 community-based, 28 extended, 62 Costa Rica anthropogenic disturbance control, 251–252, 259 biodiversity conservation payments, 169 degraded pasture restoration, 264–265 forest regeneration, 210, 287 habitat linking, 54 mixed plantations, 386–387 thinning in teak plantations, 387 watershed protection payments, 168, 231 Côte d’Ivoire, cocoa, 276

critical thresholds, for species, 17 cultural keystone species (CKS), 234 cultural values, restoring landscape for, 233–236 D dams, 308 Dana Nature Reserve, Jordan, 209 deadwood assessment, 205 future needs, 206–207 habitats provided by, 186, 204 importance, 203 restoration, 186, 199, 203–207 artificial, 201–202, 206 zoning, 206 decision support tools, future needs, 57, 420 deforestation definition, 23 see also forest loss and degradation degradation causes, 257 definition, 23 removing cause of, 243 vs. restoration, 101–102 see also forest loss and degradation Denmark, arable land afforestation, 265 designer landscapes, 103–104 development trajectories, 103 diagnostic sampling, 366 direct planting, 367 direct seeding, 244–245 dispersers, management of, 254 disturbance(s) natural, 299 patterns, influencing, 188 research needs, 425 using, 244 diversity nuclei/islands, 252, 254 donor engagement, 177 drivers of change, 103 dry tropical forests see tropical dry forests Dyfi estuary, Wales, UK, 186, 189–190 E Earth Conservation Toolbox, 55 East Kalimantan, Indonesia, 334–335 ecolabelling, 167 ecological attributes, vital, 153 ecological integrity, 5 definition, 18 ecological processes, 47 ecological reconstruction, 245–246 ecological restoration, definition, 9 ecological succession see succession economic analysis, 104, 124 economic incentives, 124 ecoregion(s) definition, 4 Global 200, 42, 51, 422 terrestrial, 42, 43 ecoregion conservation (ERC), 41–49 determining area to restore, 48 goals, 42 restoration and, 44–48 tools available, 49 ecoregional planning tools, 54–55 ecosystem(s) definition, 192 long-term impacts of restoration on, 425 ecosystem consumption, management, 258 ecosystem fragmentation, 35, 292 see also connectivity ecosystem processes, 192 restoration, 192–196 ecosystem service payment schemes, 28 ecosystem values, evaluation, 359 Ecuador payment for watershed services scheme, 162–163 water management, 229–230 edge effects, 35 egalitarianism, 87 empowerment, 419 endangered local species saving, 263 see also native species engagement, 419 Enhanced 5-S Project Management Process, 147 enrichment planting, 245, 260, 295–296, 364, 367 environmental change, planning for, 47–48 environmental education programmes, 255 Index 429 environmental externalities, persistence, 79 environmental values, in plantations, 395 equity intergenerational, 86 issues in community-owned forests, 87 ERDAS, 119 erosion control, 69, 299, 350–355, 375 future needs, 355 tools, 353–355 hill slope, 350 in Iceland, 193, 194 mass movement, 351–352 models, 374–375 wind, 351 ESRI, 119 Ethiopia, user rights for forest restoration, 88–89 ethnobotanical surveys, 236 European Union afforestation policies, 80, 82–83 forest reserves, 111 grazing in woodlands, 123 subsidies after storms, 342, 343 evaluation see monitoring even-aged plantations, 384 biodiversity restoration in, 384–390 factors influencing natural regeneration, 388–389 future needs, 389–390 planting to improve microclimatic conditions, 388 seed dispersal agent attraction, 388 factors altering biodiversity, 385–386 evolutionary processes, 47 exclusion zones, 211 F Fagerön, Sweden, managed forests, 186 Fair-Trade Labelling Organisation (FLO), certification, 220 fallow, improved, 277 farmers market information for, 296 species preferences, 264, 390 training, 421 FARSITE model, 271, 272

Forest Landscape Restoration - IUCN
Landscape restoration